Bark Beetles

(redirected from bark beetle)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to bark beetle: Mountain pine beetle

Bark Beetles

 

(Ipidae or Scolytidae), a family of beetles. The body is cylindrical, brown or black, and usually quite small (0.8–12 mm). The bark beetle has clubbed antennae and legs with four joints. The elytra in many species of bark beetles have a depression in the back that makes passages in plant tissue. There are two subfamilies—Scolytinae (with a single genus) and Ipidae—and more than 3,000 species. In the USSR there are more than 300 species. They are particularly diverse in the taiga zone, Caucasus, and southern Far East.

All bark beetles live under the bark or, more rarely, in the bark, wood, or roots of trees. Occasionally they live in the stems of herbaceous plants; some tropical species live in fruits and seeds. Many species cause major damage to forests, orchards, and parks. Most bark beetles live on trees of a particular genus or species, usually only on the trunks or branches; some live in dense, and others in sparse, forests. Only a few species are polyphagous. Bark beetles remain hidden most of their lives, flying only when the time for laying eggs approaches. For egg-laying the beetles bore an entrance into the bark; the entrance is connected to the “nuptial chamber,” where the male mates with one or more females. Leading away from this chamber are “mother galleries” (the number depending on the number of females), with egg chambers in the walls. Larval tunnels lead from the egg chambers, ending in pupal cells. The young beetle bores its way to the surface from these cells.

Most bark beetles attack weakened trees, but a number of species attack perfectly healthy trees, particularly during massive reproduction. Trees infested with the beetles die quickly. Bark beetles are also carriers of certain diseases, such as Dutch elm disease and blue rot. (The latter greatly reduces the quality of wood.)

Controlling bark beetles is difficult. The main method is to remove windfalls and material remaining after tree-felling and to cut out infested trees. In the USSR the most harmful species are Blastophagus piniperda, B. minor, and Ips typographus, which attack conifers, especially spruce; Ips sexdentatus, which infests pine and cedar; the European spruce beetle (Dendroctonus micans), which attacks Oriental spruce; and Xyleborus dispar, which infests many deciduous trees.

REFERENCE

Stark, V. N. “Koroedy.” (Fauna SSSR, vol. 31: Zhestkokrylye.) Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.

O. L. KRYZHANOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Well, that's what happens when the spruce bark beetle comes and eats the green off the tree.
Once bark beetles have successfully colonized a tree, it can't be saved, Cain said.
Structures implicated in the transportation of pathogenic fungi by the European bark beetle Ips sexdentatus Boerner: ultrastructure of a mycangium.
Temporal and spatial disparities among bark beetles, predators, and associates responding to synthetic bark beetle pheromones: Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Wisconsin.
Disruption by conophthorin of the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones.
'Besides, if you want to get rid of the spruce bark beetle in the Bialowieza forest, you will have to chop every tree down.'
Root feeding bark beetles in the genus Hylastes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly carry ophiostomatoid fungi (Ophistomatales: Ophistomataceae)and collectively contribute to root disorders of Pinus species around the world (Jacobs & Wingfield 2001).
Ponderosa pine bark beetle grubs are the heavyweight bite-pressure champions.
A STRING OF warmer-than-average winters and several years of drought have led to an epidemic increase in pine bark beetle infestation in western states and Canada.
Among the species are emerald ash borer, European Sirex woodwasp, Asian ambrosia beetle, two species of longhorned beetles from China, banded elm bark beetle, and Cydella (Tortricidae) and Chlorophorus (Cerambycidae) from Indian pine cones.
Dutch Elm disease, which is carried by a bark beetle, has affected an estimated 25 million elm trees in the UK since 1970, out of a population of about 30 million.
Interrupting this serene forest are pitiful patches of sagging, gray trees, defeated by the spruce bark beetle.