bark

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bark

or

barque

(both: bärk), sailing vessel with three masts, of which the mainmast and the foremast are square-rigged while the mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged. Although the word was once used to mean any small boat, later barks were sometimes quite large (up to 6,000 tons). In addition to the standard three-masted bark there are also four-masted barks (fore-and-aft-rigged on the aftermast) and barkentines, or three-masted vessels with the foremast square-rigged and the other masts fore-and-aft-rigged. Large numbers of barks were employed in carrying wheat from Australia to England before World War I; and in 1926 the bark Beatrice sailed from Fremantle, Western Australia, to London in 86 days.

bark,

outer covering of the stem of woody plants, composed of waterproof cork cells protecting a layer of food-conducting tissue—the phloem or inner bark (also called bast). As the woody stem increases in size (see cambiumcambium
, thin layer of generative tissue lying between the bark and the wood of a stem, most active in woody plants. The cambium produces new layers of phloem on the outside and of xylem (wood) on the inside, thus increasing the diameter of the stem.
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), the outer bark of inelastic dead cork cells gives way in patterns characteristic of the species: it may split to form grooves; shred, as in the cedar; or peel off, as in the sycamore or the shagbark hickory. A layer of reproductive cells called the cork cambium produces new cork cells to replace or reinforce the old. The cork of commerce is the carefully harvested outer bark of the cork oak (Quercus suber), a native of S Europe. The phloem (see stemstem,
supporting structure of a plant, serving also to conduct and to store food materials. The stems of herbaceous and of woody plants differ: those of herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants.
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) conducts sap downward from the leaves to be used for storage and to nourish other plant parts. "Girdling" a tree, i.e., cutting through the phloem tubes, results in starvation of the roots and, ultimately, death of the tree; trees are sometimes girdled by animals that eat bark. The fiber cells that strengthen and protect the phloem ducts are a source of such textile fibers as hemp, flax, and jute; various barks supply tannin, cork (see cork oakcork oak,
name for an evergreen species of the oak genus (Quercus) of the family Fagaceae (beech family). The cork oak (Q. suber) is native to the Mediterranean region, where most of the world's commercial supply of cork is obtained.
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), dyes, flavorings (e.g., cinnamon), and drugs (e.g., quinine). The outer bark of the paper birch was used by Native Americans to make baskets and canoes.

bark

[bärk]
(botany)
The tissues external to the cambium in a stem or root.
(metallurgy)
The decarburized layer formed beneath the scale on the surface of steel heated in air.
(naval architecture)
A three-masted sailing ship whose foremast and mainmast are square-rigged and whose mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged.

bark

The protective outer layer of a tree, composed of inner, conductive cells and outer corklike tissue.

bark

1. a protective layer of dead corky cells on the outside of the stems of woody plants
2. an informal name for cinchona
References in periodicals archive ?
Sometimes, however, a dog may bark a lot, disturbing neighbours, keeping you awake at night or frightening visitors to your home.
Alternatively, you can use counter-conditioning to get your dog to look to you for treats rather than erupting with barks when visitors arrive.
Your dogs are unusual in that they do not bark at scary things; instead they bark when anticipating something good--food or a run in the dog park.
Characterization of phenolformaldehyde resins derived from liquefied lodgepole pine barks.
But often a bark's beauty can be in its colour, texture or shape - and even the smallest garden can contain a shrub which will shine in winter by virtue of its bark features.
The interaction, even today, causes conflict within the dog--it does not know whether to stand its ground or run away from the intruder, so it barks.
1 ( ANI ): A grandmother from Cardiff claims to have healed herself of a painful bowel condition by eating tree bark.
Assuming your dog barks on and off the lead, it would be advisable to start on the lead.
In other instances, I've found nothing except a dog that barks for attention.
It would be difficult to distinguish between the root and stem barks purely on the basis of phytochemical characteristics, as variation within the biomass of each plant part is likely to be as great or greater than any variation between the plant parts.
In winter, when most flowering ceases and deciduous trees shed their leaves, the stuff that covers branches and tree trunks, otherwise known as bark, may take the biggest bite out of our botanical observations.
But wait a minute: Grab a hat and coat, pull on some boots, go outdoors and take a closer look at those trees--no, not at what's not there (leaves, fruit, flowers and seeds), but at the natural wonder that cradles, nourishes and protects every tree throughout its lifetime: bark.