barley

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barley,

annual cereal plant (Hordeum vulgare and sometimes other species) of the family Poaceae (grassgrass,
any plant of the family Poaceae (formerly Gramineae), an important and widely distributed group of vascular plants, having an extraordinary range of adaptation. Numbering approximately 600 genera and 9,000 species, the grasses form the climax vegetation (see ecology) in
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 family), cultivated by humans probably as early as any cereal. It was known to the ancient Greeks, Romans, Chinese, and Egyptians and was the chief bread material in Europe as late as the 16th cent. It has a wide range of cultivation and matures even at high altitudes, since its growing period is short; however, it cannot withstand hot and humid climates. Today barley is typically a special-purpose grain with many varieties rather than a general market crop. It is a valuable stock feed (often as a corn substitute) and is used for malting when the grain is of high quality. It is a minor source of flour and breakfast foods. Pearl barley is often used in soups. In the Middle East a limited amount of barley is eaten like rice. In the United States most spring barley comes from the western states and most winter barley is grown in the southeastern states for autumn and spring pasture and as a cover crop. Barley is subject to several diseases including smut and rust. Barley is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Liliopsida, order Cyperales, family Poaceae.

barley

[′bär·lē]
(botany)
A plant of the genus Hordeum in the order Cyperales that is cultivated as a grain crop; the seed is used to manufacture malt beverages and as a cereal.

barley

1. any of various erect annual temperate grasses of the genus Hordeum, esp H. vulgare, that have short leaves and dense bristly flower spikes and are widely cultivated for grain and forage
2. the grain of any of these grasses, used in making beer and whisky and for soups, puddings, etc.
References in classic literature ?
Barley's door, he was heard hoarsely muttering within, in a strain that rose and fell like wind, the following Refrain; in which I substitute good wishes for something quite the reverse.
Bless your eyes, here's old Bill Barley. Here's old Bill Barley, bless your eyes.
In this strain of consolation, Herbert informed me the invisible Barley would commune with himself by the day and night together; often while it was light, having, at the same time, one eye at a telescope which was fitted on his bed for the convenience of sweeping the river.
Barley was less audible than below, I found Provis comfortably settled.
Old Barley was growling and swearing when we repassed his door, with no appearance of having ceased or of meaning to cease.
Old Barley might be as old as the hills, and might swear like a whole field of troopers, but there were redeeming youth and trust and hope enough in Chinks's Basin to fill it to overflowing.
"Look here, Taboureau, deliver that barley and be very quick about it, or make up your mind to be respected by nobody in the future.
"You see, sir, it is this way; it is the man from Saint-Laurent who owes ME the barley; I bought it of him, and now he refuses to deliver it.
Let there be many wheels and sound channels--and much good barley."
O sheikhs and men, have we ridden together and walked puppies together, and bought and sold barley for the horses that after these years we should run riot on the scent of a madman--an afflicted of God?"
The new barleys, named Sawtooth and Harriman, are the third and fourth low-phytate varieties developed and released by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) plant geneticists Phil Bregitzer, Gongshe Hu, and Victor Raboy, and University of Idaho extension specialist Juliet Marshall.