A recent study of the energy transfer from barotropic to baroclinic wave
motion using a two-dimensional shallow water model suggests that about 30% of the energy needed below the halocline for deep water mixing is explained by the breaking of internal waves .
They proposed a two-step character of frontogenesis where, first, geostrophic deformation increases the temperature gradients in the growing baroclinic wave and, second, the ageostrophic frontal circulation strongly amplifies this gradient (Hoskins and Bretherton 1972).
Papritz, 2013: Warm conveyor belts in idealized moist baroclinic wave simulations.
Schmidli, 1999: Upstream development in idealized baroclinic wave experiments.
The ACRE-induced increases in the vertical flux of wave activity are consistent with enhanced upper-tropospheric baroclinicity and baroclinic wave
Held, 1993: Baroclinic wave packets in models and observations.
In the late 1970s, three young British meteorological scientists at Reading University (United Kingdom) appealed to the theory of atmospheric energy dispersion when they tried to understand a numerical experiment on baroclinic instability, in particular the triggering of successive baroclinic waves (Hoskins et al.
M., 1993: Downstream development of baroclinic waves as inferred from regression analysis.
In 1968, he became an assistant professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Colorado State University, where he published several more innovative articles on instability and nonlinear interaction of baroclinic waves