barotrauma


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Related to barotrauma: Sinus barotrauma, volutrauma

barotrauma

[‚bar·ə′trau̇·mə]
(medicine)
Injury to air-containing structures, such as the middle ears, sinuses, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, due to unequal pressure differences across their walls.

Barotrauma

 

injury to the ear (less commonly to other organs containing air or gas, such as the lungs and intestines), arising from a sharp change in atmospheric pressure. The tympanic membrane can tolerate even a marked increase in pressure if it occurs slowly, in which case pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane (on the side of the external auditory meatus and on the side of the tympanic cavity) is equalized through the eustachian tube. In cases of sharp changes (drops) in pressure, for example, in rapid ascents and descents of an airplane, the pressure can be equalized by swallowing (which is why hard candy is given out on an airplane). If the pressure cannot be equalized, the tympanic membrane is sucked in and the pressure is transmitted through the chain of auditory ossicles to the inner ear. At first, a barotrauma is felt as pain in the ear, then hearing is impaired; subsequently, there is noise in the ears and sometimes vertigo. If the drop in pressure is extreme, the tympanic membrane may rupture. Barotrauma occurs in fliers (when diving), parachute jumpers, and divers. Prevention consists in screening persons with clear eustachian tubes for the particular occupations and special training in a pressure chamber.

L. V. NEIMAN

barotrauma

barotraumaclick for a larger image
One example of barotruauma is otitic barotrauma. During ascent, higher pressure in the ear gets equalized. However, during descent, the air from outside is not able to equalize unless there is some action like chewing, swallowing, and valsava maneuver. The situation gets aggravated in case of sinus congestion in which there may not only be pain in the ears during descent but physical injury to the ears.
An injury caused by expansion or contraction of trapped gases in the body resulting from changes in pressure. It can lead to pain in the ears otitic barotrauma, the sinuses sinus barotrauma, and the intestines.
References in periodicals archive ?
Upon capture, the hook was removed, and hook location and signs of barotrauma noted.
Penetrating injury through the external auditory meatus (cotton-tipped applicators, stone, etc.); surgical trauma; blast; barotrauma through the external auditory canal or through the Eustachian tube; and lightning are the other causes (2).
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is essential life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, it can also lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) due to regional alveolar overstretch and/or repetitive alveolar collapse, which were termed as barotrauma, volutrauma, and atelectrauma.
Here, we report an unusual and unique case of colonic barotrauma resulted in pneumatic rupture of colonic segment.
Idiopathic PSD is commonly caused by barotrauma. It can be aggravated by valsalva maneuvers such as coughing, sneezing, and mountain climbing, airplane trips, and tube diving (1).
These include intubation-associated trauma, acute lung injury, barotrauma and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Typically, patients are young males with a history of illicit drug inhalation, bronchial asthma, vomiting, coughing, or barotrauma due to elevated pressures from air travel or diving.
"It's a prize eating fish that's caught in deep waters and cannot be put back due to barotrauma - damage caused by a sudden change in pressure.
Ventilator management is essential to prevent further pulmonary insult from high pressure volumes (volutrauma) and peak airway pressures (barotrauma) (Arbour, 2017; Carlucci et al., 2014).
The development of barotrauma has been reported to have little effect on ventilator parameters such as peak pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and tidal volume [10].
The causes related to the production of pneumothorax are multiple and, due to this fact, they have received different denominations such as iatrogenic, traumatic, barotrauma, and spontaneous (primary and secondary) [1, 4].
LRAD was first used to disperse a protest in 2009 during the G20 Summit in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where victims sustained permanent hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing of the ears), barotrauma, ear pain and disorientation when the LRAD was activated without warning.