The external globus pallidus extends GABAergic neurons to the subthalamic nuclei, a structure of the basal ganglia
that utilizes the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamine to promote impulse transmission to the internal globus pallidus, which inhibits input to the thalamus and ultimately sends excitatory impulses back to the cortex (Bolam, Hanley, Booth, & Bevan, 2000).
We do the same thing at the basal ganglia
, thalamus, cerebellum, amygdala, and hippocampus.
Maki et al described four patients with basal ganglia
lesions following minor head trauma.
By recording the neural activity in the basal ganglia
during this task we found neurons that seem to treat a whole sequence of actions as a single behavior," Costa explained.
A secondary layer of control over movement--the extrapyramidal system--is found at the base of the cerebral cortex and consists of the basal ganglia
and its related structures (see Figure 1, opposite page).
There was prominent acute and chronic perivascular inflammation within the cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia
, and brainstem (Figure 3, panels A, B).
The basal ganglia
is a golf ball-sized lump of tissue in the brain, the importance of which was not well understood until the early 1990s.
The first is multifocal lesions in the white matter with or without basal ganglia
Further high-signal foci were seen within the basal ganglia
Prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia
, limbic system and amygdale are words commonly found on WebMD.
They first address basal ganglia
and cerebellar anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology, standard definitions, and diagnostic approaches, then the presentation, phenomenology, etiology, clinical characteristics, neuronatomic localization, and pathophysiology of individual diseases and disorders, including developmental, paroxysmal, hyperkinetic, hypokinetic, and secondary movement disorders like Tourette syndrome, dystonia, Parkinsonism, cerebral palsy, drug-induced, and psychogenic disorders.
He noted that, compared with the controls, the OSA subjects had scattered areas of decreased gray matter volume in the temporal lobe bilaterally and in the left insular region, and had scattered areas of increased gray matter volume in the right basal ganglia
and the frontal and parietal lobes.