Similarly, the derivative of

base vector with respect to the arc-length coordinate could be given by the cross product of the curvature and

base vectors:

In the mutation operator of most DE variants, a mutant vector can be treated as the lead individual to explore the search space and generated by adding a difference vector to a

base vector.

Three other parents are used to generate each trial vector; the

base vector and two difference vectors.

The imaginary 3D

base vector i of the quaternionic number space is the imaginary base number of the complex number space.

When applied to a

base vector, that is rotating around the Z axis together with the yarn, this equations gives

c] is period of carrier signal, which determines the discreetness of [phi] change, [theta] is angle between the first

base vector and [U.

Dot products of the

base vector give a set of symmetric numbers which are called metric coefficients.

A DE variant is usually marked as DE/x/y/z, where x denotes how the differential mutation base is chosen, y denotes the number of vector differences added to the

base vector and z indicates the crossover method.

shp files and attributes and display against a backdrop of DeLorme

base vector data, satellite imagery, or high-resolution aerial imagery.

Cartique Mapping is the flagship

base vector mapping range, designed with a clear, attractive style fo r backdrop and presentation mapping, querying and analysis.

Transformation rules between

base vectors are given by [[bar.

j]) since the covariant and contravariant

base vectors are biorthogonal, as Illustrated in Fig.