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A class of fungi in the subdivision Eumycetes; important as food and as causal agents of plant diseases.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a class of higher fungi having special reproductive organs, or basidia. The typical mature basidium has four single-cell spores (basidiospores) located in special excrescences, or sterigmata. During germination each basid-iospore puts forth a septate primary (haploid mycelium) or a spawn. Thus, in most basidiomycetes a merging of cells of the same or different (heterothallic) spawns takes place. The diploid mycelium usually develops sexual bodies. (Rust fungi and smut fungi are spore bearing.) Later, meiosis occurs in the basidia (for smut and rust fungi, in the spores); this ends with the formation of usually four nuclei, which migrate to the now-developed basidiospores.

The class Basidiomycetes includes more than 15,000 species. Many of them are edible (for example, birch mushroom, cepe, and peppery lactarius), some are poisonous (fly agaric and death cup), some cause wood rot, and some destroy many agricultural crops. The classification of basidiomycetes is based upon the structural peculiarities of its sexual organs and spore bearing. Basidiomycetes are usually divided into two subclasses: Holobasidiomycetes, which has a single-cell basidium called the holobasidium, and Phragmobasidiomycetes, which has either a four-celled basidium, the so-called phragmobasidium, or a single-cell spheroid, pear-shaped, or elongated dichotomously bifurcate basidium. The subclass Holobasidiomycetes is divided into the following orders: (1) Exobasidiales, without sexual organs and basidia developing on the spawn under the epidermis of the feeding plant (parasites); (2) Aphyl-lophorales; (3) Agaricales; and (4) Gasteromycetales. The subclass Phragmobasidiomycetes is divided into the following orders: (1) Ustilaginales, (2) Uredinales, (3) Au-riculariales, (4) Tremellales, (5) Dacryomycetales, and (6) Tulasnellales. The sexual organs of the latter four orders are mostly of a jelly-like consistency. The phragmobasidia which grow on them are divided into four cells either crosswise, as in the Auriculariales, or lengthwise, as in the Tremellales; or they are single-cell basidia, dichotomously bifurcate, as in the Dacryomycetales, or spherical or pear-shaped, as in the Tulasnellales.


Kursanov, L. I. Mikologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1940.
Bondartsev, A. S. Trutovye griby Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR i Kav-kaza. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes.
Mycaureola dilseae, a marine basidiomycete parasite of the red alga, Dilsea carnosa.
Identification of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tylospora fibrillosa Donk by RFLP analysis of the PCR-amplified ITS and IGS regions of ribosomal DNA.
Laccases are distributed in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes, being particularly abundant in many white rot fungi, which are involved in lignin metabolism (Gochev and Krastanov, 2007).
Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which grows naturally in the Piedade, coastal rainforest, area in Brazil.
(1988) utilized an inoculated pairing with basidiomycete decomposers and showed a complete replacement, with only one living strain at the end of the test.
Effect of different culture conditions and inducers on production of laccase by basidiomycete fungal isolate Pleurotus ostreatus HP-1 under solid state fermentation.
Despite of costs being a major concern, it has been a stimulus to study basidiomycetes biochemical properties which degrade lignocellulosic material and have prompted the processes' study for obtaining cellulolytic enzymes in fungi.
Jiang, "Preliminary research of the RAPD molecular marker-assisted breeding of the edible basidiomycete Stropharia rugoso-annulata," World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.
Distribution and role of mat-forming saprobic Basidiomycetes in a Tropical Forest, p.