With respect to the outer ear occlusion effect (mechanism 1) and middle ear ossicle inertia (mechanism 2), the pressure difference across the basilar membrane
, inducing its displacement, is a result of the vibrations of the tympanic membrane (occlusion effect) or of the stapes footplate (ossicle inertia), which act inward to the inner ear, as in AC.
Despite cellular integration into the basilar membrane
, functional evaluation of mIESC-transplanted guinea pigs revealed no significant improvement in auditory thresholds.
Cochlear disease and anatomical variations made the precise placement of the electrode difficult under the basilar membrane
for the required localized stimulation.
Now, Holmes and his colleagues are developing mathematical equations that describe how the ear canal leading to the eardrum influences sound waves and how specialized hair cells embedded in the basilar membrane
convert mechanical movement into electrical signals.
A study to quantify the force required to puncture the intrascalar partition  used micro dissected fresh (post mortem<120 hours), human temporal bones to expose the osseous spiral lamina, basilar membrane
, and Reissner's membrane complex.
For example the array of resonators has better resolution in a frequency range but the membrane has any behaviour closer to the real basilar membrane
(for example similar running of travelling waves and phase characteristics).
In general, if the goal is to estimate the characteristic frequency location for stimulating sites along an electrode array, then logically, the zero or reference point for measurement should be the beginning of the basilar membrane
. For practical purposes, this reference point would be the RW in CI subjects evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (CT).
The scientists suggest that the contractile proteins within these unusual cells pull on external fibers that are attached to the long, spiraling inner-ear structure called the basilar membrane
. The motion of the basilar membrane
, a crucial element in hearing, would be modified by the tension applied by the fibers.
To date, the distribution of MLCs was mostly studied in the adult cochlea, where the presence of MLCs was detected in the stria vascularis, spiral ligament, basilar membrane
, and 8th nerve [1, 7].
The real mammalian cochlea is compound from three fluid spaces (scala media, scala tympani and scala vestibuli) which are mutually divided by two membranes (basilar membrane
and Reissner's membrane).
 It has been proposed that these bubbles disturb the propagation of the traveling wave of the basilar membrane
RT-PCR results showed that Cadm1 is highly expressed in the spiral ganglion and weakly expressed in the basilar membrane