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bass, in zoology
bass, in music
(1) The lowest masculine voice. High or singing bass is distinguished from low or deep bass (Italian, basso profundo). In opera, the comic bass is common. The high bass can be lyric (with a range roughly from G of the great octave to F of the first octave) or dramatic (from F of the great octave to E of the first octave). In Russian choral singing the low bass (from C through E of the great octave to D through E of the first octave) is also called the “central bass.” In choral singing, the bass is divided into first bass singers (whose part is sung by the baritones) and second bass singers (actual bass). In Russian choirs there are also so-called contrabass basses who are capable of reaching notes at the low limit of the human voice (A to B-flat of the contra-octaves).
(2) The lowest part of a many-voiced musical work.
(3) Figured bass (basso continuo).
(4) Musical instruments in a low register, including the bass tuba and double bass, as well as the folk cello in the Ukraine (basolia) and Byelorussia (basetlia).