carbo isozyme patterns and stability to other bathypelagic
fish show the most profound modifications found in fish living at any depth.
In almost all parts of the ocean, there are clear faunal differences between the meso- and bathypelagic
depths, and the animals of those zones have very different lifestyles.
Winter Summer Larval abundance Average per sample (larvae 10 [m.sup.-2]) 1064 4273 Faunistic affinity (%) Temperate 7.5 1.8 Tropical 41.8 55.5 Subtropical 49.2 40 Wide distribution 1.5 2.7 Habitat (%) Mesopelagic 17.1 6.1 Coastal-pelagic 12.2 20.9 Oceanic-pelagic 2.4 6.8 Shallow-demersal 56.1 60.1 Deep-demersal 6.1 2.7 Bathypelagic
6.1 3.4 TABLE 2: Summary of the redundancy analysis (RDA) applied to fish larvae abundance and environmental variables in each cruise.
Goncaus madokai paralarvae and juveniles occur at epipelagic depths (6), (9), but as females approach maturity, they descend to mesopelagic and bathypelagic
depths (10), where spawning is thought to begin in winter (11).
thermydron zoeae and megalopae larvae possess image-forming compound eyes with a visual pigment well suited to wave lengths characteristic of dim sunlight and bioluminescence in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic
regions of the water column (see section on Larval Biology and Dispersal below).
No, this place is much closer to home--in an area of the deep ocean called the bathypelagic
zone (see Nuts & Bolts, p.
Ragfish are now well known from epipelagic, mesopelagic, and upper bathypelagic
zones, as well as the corresponding sea bottom zones (mesobenthal, bathybenthal) (Grinols, 1965).
The lower zones of the mesopelagic zone are harder to define, although by analogy with the benthic zones they have been called bathypelagic
(between 3,281 and 13,123 ft [1,000 and 4,000 m]), abyssopelagic (between 13,123 and 19,685 ft [4,000 and 6,000 m]) and hadopelagic (between 19,685 and 36,089 ft [6,000 and 11,000 m]).
Recent analysis of the stomach contents of 10 stranded Sowerby's beaked whales from the Azores in the eastern North Atlantic (Pereira et al., 2011) provided evidence that small meso- and bathypelagic
fishes constitute an important part of the diet of this species in this area.
Gigantactis vanhoeffeni is a rarely encountered but widespread meso- and bathypelagic
species known from throughout the North Pacific, as well as the Indian and Atlantic oceans.
He concluded that the flatfish was far more likely to have been a holothurian, in particular the bathypelagic
"cushion shaped" Galatheathuria aspera, which is white, oval, and about a foot long.