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an operation in sheet stamping that uses plastic deformation of the initial flat stock to produce a flange along the contour of a previously punched opening or along an exterior contour. In the former case, beading is performed by a tapered punch in a die by bending and stretching the wall of the sheet stock around a prepunched opening to give a cylindrical flange. In the latter case, a flange along the external contour of the stock is produced by the method of rubber-pad forming. The resulting bead usually has corrugations (crimps), which must be removed by manual finishing or by using a press.