* ZEISS Gemini 450 can control spot size and

beam currentAt a fixed voltage of the electron accelerator, the technological dose of irradiation is directly proportional to the current of the electron beam and inversely proportional to the transmission speed of the cable under this beam [5]: D = 120 x I x N / LV, Mrad, where I is the electron

beam current (mA), N is the number of wire passes under the electron beam, L is the length of the beam scan perpendicular to the direction of the workpiece pulling, V is the velocity of the passage under the electron beam (m/min).

The samples were irradiated at the fixed accelerating voltage of 14 kV and the

beam current of about 1nA.

In the existing ion implanter, the distance between ion generationer and wafer is long and

beam current is lost during beam transport with low acceleration, and it takes 10 minutes to process 2E15ions/cm2 for one wafer with 20keV.

Sundemeyer, "New high-speed

beam current control and deflection system improve electron beam welding application," Welding Journal, vol.

and the azimuthal self-magnetic field [B.sup.s.sub.b] induced by the

beam current. Applying the Gauss' theorem and Ampere's theorem, [E.sub.i], [E.sup.s.sub.b], and [B.sup.s.sub.b] can be expressed as follows, respectively:

Most studies on the radionuclide impurities have concentrated on the identification of the impurities without further studying the effect of proton

beam current on the amount of the impurities.

Line scanning is a special mode of pencil beam scanning (PBS), where the beam is delivered continuously with a constant

beam current in each energy layer and the intensity modulation is achieved by varying the scan speed within the energy layer.

Although the effect of the modified space charge is often the dominant factor in determining particle trajectories, in high intensity beams the self-magnetic field generated by the

beam current can also be important, and can optionally be included in the simulation.

The acceleration energy,

beam current and dose rate were 2 MeV, 2mA and 10 kGy/pass, respectively.

The electron

beam current abruptly increased and coincided with the dip from the signals of the high-voltage probe signal.