South Africa's Kentron Ingwe (Leopard) is a Tow-class laser beam-riding missile
with a maximum range of 5000 metres.
One of the most serious threats is the KBP 9M121 Vikhr (AT-16), a supersonic laser beam-riding missile
that can be used either against tanks or aircraft.
A laser beam-riding missile
is less prone to jamming problems.
Initial development of the 2000-3000-metre range, laser beam-riding Missile Anti-carro della Fanteria (MAF) was undertaken as a private venture by OTO-Melara, with Officine Galileo for the guidance, Breda for the firing post, and SNIA-BPD for the rocket motor and the warhead.
Since the mid-1980s, the Israeli Army has been deploying an IR laser beam-riding missile derived from the wire-guided Hughes TOW.
Command to line-of-sight and beam-riding missiles
like the Blowpipe, Javelin and Starburst belong to a different league.
The unmanned turret has two pairs of Denel Ingwe ('Leopard') laser beam-riding missiles
in the ready-to-launch position with a stabilised day/night system mounted between them.
The development of laser beam-riding missiles
and even specialised anti-helicopter rounds fired from tank guns means that yet another part of the spectrum needs to be monitored for possible threats.
The ADATS employs Contraves search and track radars that can simultaneously follow up to six targets (with growth potential for ten), a Martin-Marietta EO module, and eight laser beam-riding missiles