beard


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beard,

hair on the lower portion of the face. The term mustache refers to hair worn above the upper lip. Attitudes toward facial hair have varied in different cultures. In ancient Egypt, as well as Turkey and India, the beard was regarded as a sign of dignity and wisdom. Beards continued into the Greek civilization until the 4th cent. B.C., when Alexander the Great ordered his soldiers shaved. The Romans, however, actually introduced the practice of regular shaving. The belief that the beard denotes wisdom was widespread in ancient China, and the cult of the beard has been dominant in Middle Eastern cultures from ancient times to the recent past. As a symbol of virility and status, the beard has often acquired religious significance. Muhammad enjoined his followers to grow beards; the Sikhs of India are not permitted to remove a single hair from their bodies; and the patriarchs of the tribes of Israel were bearded. Hindus, on the other hand, have traditionally been clean-shaven. Prior to the 7th cent., most Anglo-Saxons wore beards, but with the spread of Christianity, beards were discouraged. However, since that time beards of all sizes and shapes have appeared and disappeared with the cycles of fashion. The guardsman's mustache of the 18th and early 19th cent. was the sign of an army man, and after 1830 the beard became the emblem of the French radicals. In the 20th cent. beards and mustaches were generally out of fashion until the 1960s when, together with long hair, they became popular with young people.

Bibliography

See R. Reynolds, Beards (1950).

beard

[bird]
(botany)
awn

beard

1. the hair growing on the lower parts of a man's face
2. any similar growth in animals
3. a tuft of long hairs in plants such as barley and wheat; awn
4. the gills of an oyster

Beard

(dreams)
Beards are usually associated with masculinity, wisdom, strength; and the men who have them typically command respect. Moses, Jesus, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln all had beards. Old dream interpretation books say that dreaming of bearded men is a good omen, and good luck will follow. On the other hand, dreaming about women with beards is said to be bad luck. It’s no wonder that traditionally a woman who is strong, wise, and who commands respect was considered threatening. If you are a woman dreaming that you have a beard, you may be dealing with your own issues of power. You may be using more masculine energy than you would like to or than is necessary. Also, since beards conceal the faces of those who have them, they may symbolize negative characteristics, such as deception, extreme guardedness, or of the shadow (Bluebeard, a folktale by Charles Perrault).
References in classic literature ?
I will answer that briefly," replied the curate; "you must know then, Senor Don Quixote, that Master Nicholas, our friend and barber, and I were going to Seville to receive some money that a relative of mine who went to the Indies many years ago had sent me, and not such a small sum but that it was over sixty thousand pieces of eight, full weight, which is something; and passing by this place yesterday we were attacked by four footpads, who stripped us even to our beards, and them they stripped off so that the barber found it necessary to put on a false one, and even this young man here"- pointing to Cardenio- "they completely transformed.
The Professor, with his face flushed, his nostrils dilated, and his beard bristling, was now in a proper Berserk mood.
As to his other features, the mouth, so far as his beard and mustache permitted me to see it, was small and delicately formed; the nose--perfectly shaped on the straight Grecian model--was perhaps a little too thin, judged by comparison with the full cheeks and the high massive forehead.
Johnston, Mark Albert, Beard Fetish in Early Modern England: Sex, Gender, and Registers of Value (Women and Gender in the Early Modern World), Farnham, Ashgate, 2011; hardback; pp.
MIKE Milligan, I suspect you have never had a beard.
He that hath a beard is more than a youth, and he that hath no beard is less than a man.
uk Victoria Beckham says she won't kiss husband David with his bushy beard.
WASHINGTON -- Supreme Court justices appeared united Tuesday as they picked apart prison rules in Arkansas that allow full Afros and mustaches, but no beards, in a case about a Muslim inmate's claim that his religious beliefs require that he be allowed to keep a half-inch beard.
Teessiders by the sounds of it with an estimated 40% growth in beard trims at Middlesbrough's "beard epicentre" Rude Grooming salon.
Cases of forced beard shavings have increased in Tajikistan.
It is hard to say when the Great Beard Revolution took place exactly.
Despite these varying claims, few scholars have investigated the broader intellectual environment from which Beard emerged and in which An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution was written.