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in zoology, organ found in bees, many wasps, some ants, and in scorpions and sting rays, used defensively as well as to kill or paralyze prey. In the bee and the wasp the venomvenom
or zootoxin,
any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct.
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 is produced by glands associated with the ovipositor (egg-laying organ) of the female. As symptoms differ, it is assumed that the venom of each species of insect probably has slightly different chemical properties. The bee's "acid gland" produces histamine and proteinlike substances that are extremely dangerous to persons with specific allergies to them. Adrenaline injections may be lifesaving in such cases. In the honeybee the sting is a minute needle with tiny serrated edges, the teeth of which point backward. This makes it hard for the insect to pull the organ loose and often results in the fatal loss of the sting, the poison gland, and part of the intestine. Hornets, yellow jackets, and other wasps have sharp, smooth stings that can be used repeatedly. A few ants produce formic acid as a venom. The scorpion kills its prey with poison injected by a curved spine at the tip of its tail; the wound is painful to human adults and may be fatal to children. Strictly speaking, spiders bite rather than sting, since they inject their venom by means of fanglike cheliceras. Coelenterates, e.g., the hydra, jellyfish, and certain corals, are equipped with stinging capsules (nematocysts) consisting of a trigger mechanism that, when stimulated, raises the hydrostatic pressure of the cell so that hollow venom-bearing threads are ejected with enough force to pierce the prey. The larger coelenterates, e.g., the Portuguese man-of-war and Cyanea, are dangerous to man. The stingrays, or stingarees, have long whiplike tails bearing one to three sharply toothed, bony, poisonous stingers capable of inflicting painful wounds.


1. a skin wound caused by the poison injected by certain insects or plants
2. pain caused by or as if by the sting of a plant or animal
3. a sharp pointed organ, such as the ovipositor of a wasp, by which poison can be injected into the prey
4. Slang a trap set up by the police to entice a person to commit a crime and thereby produce evidence


A parallel dialect of Scheme intended to serve as a high-level operating system for symbolic programming languages. First-class threads and processors and customisable scheduling policies.

E-mail: <>.

["A Customizable Substrate for Concurrent Languages", S. Jagannathan et al, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 1992].
References in periodicals archive ?
Personnel with no known bee allergies are still at risk for systemic anaphylaxis as discussed above, which may be exacerbated by multiple bee stings (16) which is often seen when attacked by Africanized honey bees.
A diagnosis of massive envenomation by multiple bee stings with severe systemic reaction of grade IV on Muller grading system was made and patient was immediately put on ventilator support without any delay.
Patients with acute myocardial infarction after multiple bee stings as reported in literature, the coronary arteries were normal or insignificantly stenosed.
Consider referral to a pediatric allergy specialist if a child has a history of adverse or severe reactions to bee stings.
It has been proposed that optic neuropathy associated with bee sting, is due to acute demyelization of the optic nerve (5), however the exact mechanism for this event is unknown.
According to Al-Wadei, the bee sting contains hormones and proteins that stimulate function of the immune system and accelerate blood circulation.
In the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, there were seven deaths due to bee stings in 1993-1998; considering a total of 2 462 accidents recorded, the lethality was 0.
If you or your family are allergic to bee stings, check with your doctor about a prescription bee-sting kit that contains adrenalin, such as the EpiPen.
Besides instantaneous pain, bee sting reactions can vary from an immediate welt at the site of the sting (local reaction) to anaphylaxis (generalized reaction).
Dutch researchers recently performed a double-blind crossover study of bee sting therapy in 25 patients with clinically definite relapsing MS.
The target groups were patients (200) treated by bee honey and bee sting in two honey centers,, and a control group (50) treated by chemicals in Omdurman Teaching Hospital.
We have had more bees than usual this summer, hence many more bee sting injuries too.