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behaviorism,school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B. WatsonWatson, John Broadus,
1878–1958, American psychologist, b. Greenville, S.C. He taught (1903–8) at the Univ. of Chicago and was professor and director (1908–20) of the psychological laboratory at Johns Hopkins.
..... Click the link for more information. , who insisted that behavior is a physiological reaction to environmental stimuli. He rejected the exploration of mental processes as unscientific. The conditioned-reflex experiments of the Russian physiologist Ivan PavlovPavlov, Ivan Petrovich
, 1849–1936, Russian physiologist and experimental psychologist. He was professor at the military medical academy and director of the physiology department at the Institute for Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, from 1890.
..... Click the link for more information. and the American psychologist Edward ThorndikeThorndike, Edward Lee
, 1874–1949, American educator and psychologist, b. Williamsburg, Mass., grad. Wesleyan Univ., 1895, and Harvard, 1896, Ph.D. Columbia, 1898.
..... Click the link for more information. were central to the development of behaviorism. The American behaviorist B. F. SkinnerSkinner, Burrhus Frederic,
1904–90, American psychologist, b. Susquehanna, Pa. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1931, and remained there as an instructor until 1936, when he moved to the Univ. of Minnesota (1937–45) and to Indiana Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. contended that all but a few emotions were conditioned by habit, and could be learned or unlearned. The therapeutic system of behavior modification has emerged from behaviorist theory. Therapy intends to shape behavior through a variety of processes known as conditioning. Popular techniques include systematic desensitization, generally used on clients suffering from anxiety or fear of an object or situation, and aversive conditioning, employed in cases where a client wishes to be broken of an unhealthy habit (such as smoking or drug abuse). Other behavior therapies include systems of rewards or punishments, and modeling, in which the client views situations in which healthy behaviors are shown to lead to rewards.
See B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior (1965); J. B. Watson, Behaviorism (1930, repr. 1970); J. O'Donell, Origins of Behaviorism (1986); K. W. Buckley, Mechanical Man: John B. Watson and the Beginning of Behaviorism (1989).
a leading school of American psychology that has exerted significant influence on all disciplines connected with the study of man. The basis of behaviorism is the conception of human and animal behavior as the aggregate of motor responses (reactions), and of verbal and emotional responses reducible to motor responses, to the effects (stimuli) of the external environment.
Behaviorism arose at the turn of the 20th century under the immediate influence of experimental research being done by animal psychologists. Since the method of self-observation, which predominated in the study of the human psyche, could not be used in animal research, an experimental methodology was devised based on a series of controlled influences on the animals and the recording of their reactions to these influences. This method was also transferred to the study of the human psyche. The general methodological premises of behaviorism were the principles of the philosophy of positivism, according to which science must describe only that which is immediately observable. Any attempts to analyze internal mechanisms that do not lend themselves to immediate observation are rejected as philosophic speculations. Hence, the fundamental thesis of behaviorism is that psychology must study behavior and not consciousness, which is in principle not immediately observable; behavior is understood as the aggregate of “stimulus-response” (S-R) bonds.
The forefather of behaviorism was E. Thorndike. The program of behaviorism and the term itself were first proposed by J. Watson (1913). The work of V. M. Bekhterev and I. P. Pavlov exerted great influence on the creation of the scientific foundations of behaviorism.
According to behaviorism, man has relatively few innate behavior patterns at birth (breathing, swallowing, and so forth); upon these are constructed more complex processes, to the point of the formation of the most complex “repertoires of behavior” (B. Skinner). A successful response is reinforced and thereafter has a tendency to be reproduced—this is known as the “law of effect.” Reinforcement of a response is subordinate to the “law of practice”—that is, the multiple repetition of the same reactions in response to the same stimuli, as a result of which these responses become automatic. In order to explain how a given reaction is selected in response to a given stimulus, Thorndike advanced the principle of “trial and error,” according to which the working out of any new response begins with blind attempts that continue until one of them produces a positive effect.
Behaviorism in its classic form attained its highest development in the 1920’s. The fundamental ideas, methods of research, and terms of behaviorism were transferred to anthropology, sociology, and pedagogy. In the USA these sciences, united in that they all study behavior, were given the general title of “behavioral sciences.” This term has been retained to this day, although in most cases it no longer expresses the immediate influence of the ideas of behaviorism. In the postwar period the traditions of behaviorism have been continued in much of the research in machine translation and also in the American concept of so-called programmed teaching (B. Skinner).
The strengths of behaviorism were the turn to objective study of the psyche that it brought about, the new experimental methodology it developed, and the broad application of mathematical methods to psychology. However, behaviorism has been subjected to serious criticism in both Soviet and foreign psychology (this began in Gestalt psychology and continued in the work of L. S. Vygotskii, S. L. Rubinshtein, J. Piaget, and others). Behaviorism was criticized for removing from psychology such fundamental concepts as consciousness, thought, will, and so forth; for ignoring the social nature of the psyche and consequently desensitizing and primitivizing human behavior; and, in the last analysis, for losing sight of the true substance of psychology. The fairness of this criticism has been confirmed by the very development of behaviorism. Its followers have introduced so-called intermediate variables in the S-R pattern—that is, they have returned to analysis of the psyche and in so doing have renounced the basic thesis of behaviorism in its classic form.
REFERENCESWatson, J. B. “Behaviorism.” In Bol’shaia Sovetskaia entsiklopediia, vol. 6. Moscow, 1927.
Eksperimental’naia psikhologiia, issues 1–2, chapter 1. Compiled by P. Fraisse and J. Piaget. Moscow, 1966.
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Istoriia psikhologii, chapter 12. Moscow, 1966.
N. G. ALEKSEEV