behaviourism


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Related to behaviourism: Cognitivism

behaviourism

(US), behaviorism
1. a school of psychology that regards the objective observation of the behaviour of organisms (usually by means of automatic recording devices) as the only proper subject for study and that often refuses to postulate any intervening mechanisms between the stimulus and the response
2. Philosophy the doctrine that the mind has no separate existence but that statements about the mind and mental states can be analysed into statements about actual and potential behaviour

behaviourism

  1. the school of psychology whose central precept is that the subject matter of psychology is observable behaviour only
  2. the study, generally through animal experiments, of the principles of learning (also called CONDITIONING), and the application of these principles to understanding and manipulating human behaviour.
  3. (PHILOSOPHY, e.g. Ryle's The Concept of Mind, 1949) the notion that ‘mental concepts may be analysed in terms of overt acts and utterances’ (Flew, 1979). For Ryle, sense 1 mistakenly assumes exclusivity of the mental and physical, a DUALISM of MIND and BODY.
Behaviourism as a school of psychology was founded in the US by E. L. Thorndike (1911) who proposed the Law of Effect. This states that behaviour which is rewarded tends to be repeated, while behaviour which is not rewarded tends to decrease. At much the same time, in Russia, I. Pavlov (1846-1936) was investigating the conditioned reflex. His experiments led to the formulation of the theory of classical conditioning (Pavlov, 1911).

The most influential and prolific behaviourist, however, is B.F. Skinner (1904-90), whose name has become almost synonymous with behaviourism and who invented the Skinner Box. This instrument provides a controlled environment within which to study animal learning (operant conditioning).

The main tenet of behaviourism as a school of psychology is that only observable behaviour can be scientifically studied. However, this includes verbal behaviour, which may express thoughts. Primarily, though, behaviourists prefer to disregard mental functions, or the effect of the organism, which is interposed between the observable stimulus (S) and the observable response (R). Only the S and R can be controlled and measured, therefore only they can be studied.

In order to study the principles of learning rigorously the behaviours need to be simple and the procedures ethically acceptable. This has meant a concentration on animal experiments, often in the controlled environment of a Skinner Box where, typically, rats or pigeons can be studied learning to associate S (such as a lever or disk) and R (such as pressing or pecking) under various schedules of reinforcement (using food pellets as reinforcement). Such investigations have led to the development of a fund of knowledge about the circumstances under which conditioning takes place, and about what variables affect its strength and application.

These ideas were particularly influential in the 1930s and 40s, dominating academic psychology and pervading general culture, and particularly affecting child-rearing practices. Subsequently, their general influence within psychology has receded, but within the mental-health field the principles are still widely used. See BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION.

Skinner has also been influential in the field of language learning (Verbal Behaviour, 1957). He proposed that a child learns language through a process of conditioning – his/her verbal behaviour is shaped by reinforcement towards the sounds of his/her native language. This contrasts with CHOMSKYs theory (see LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE).

References in periodicals archive ?
Behaviourism is the basis of a model of training which goes something like this: 'I'll tell you the facts as I know them.
So how do you use behaviourism most effectively in your training sessions?
Other early forms of behaviourism anticipating, and in many ways Surpassing in philosophical sophistication, J.
In fact Mills traces Watson's formulation of behaviourism to his Collaboration with Adolf Meyer, the prominent psychoanalytically-oriented psychiatrist, who shared Watson's vision of psychology as a rigorously experimental, unified, and, above all, useful science.
In addition to its pragmatic value, the relational framework of behaviour analysis and the rich philosophical tradition of radical behaviourism share modes of thinking with other contemporary positions.
In its epistemology, radical behaviourism shares concerns with a number of other modern viewpoints that attempt to move away from dualistic and mechanistic assumptions in their view of persons and of the nature of scientific inquiry, while from a pragmatic perspective, the functional relations framework provides practitioners with powerful tools of analysis and intervention.
However, the authors believe that the competing and contradictory approach offered by radical behaviourism should be introduced as an alternative source for explaining the behaviours encompassed in sales interactions.
Behaviourism is well established and has many innovative applications in such fields as clinical psychology, education, behavioural medicine, mental retardation, brain injury, and many other areas[28], with much of the research being published in journals such as Behaviour Modification, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Therapy, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.
It is interesting to notice that some regard the social learning paradigm as some sort of behaviourism given that it seems to reflect processes relating to the ways in which people learns from others located in their environment (Zhang et al, 2013).
It could also be argued that behaviourism has played an important role in human resource development.
26) cite as a main deficiency of behaviourism that 'Skinner's analysis also failed to take into account the role of the organism in organizing and theorizing about its experience.
Furthermore, paradigmatic behaviourism (Staats, 1989, 1991) has for several decades been treating cognitive concepts in behavioural terms, and has also pointed out (Staats, 1989) how terminological confusion may conceal the similarity of psychological theories.