Combining the seeds from both years, and using only seeds for which the disperser was known, the mean canopy cover at sites of seeds dispersed by bellbirds was significantly lower than of sites of seeds dispersed by all the other species (89 and 96%, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test: [[chi].
Seedlings from seeds dispersed by bellbirds were significantly taller than those at other species' sites (t test = 2.
The results illustrate three main points: (1) bellbirds dispersed seeds in a different pattern than the other species; (2) postdispersal seed predation is highest near the parent trees, but is also high everywhere; and (3) the pattern of recruitment is bimodal with a peak near the parent tree in closed canopy forest, as well as another in gaps corresponding to bellbird perches.
Only male bellbirds frequently dispersed seeds to tree fall gaps.
The influence of bellbirds on the pattern of seed fall is shown by the slight increase in the number of seeds 40-65 m from the parent trees (Fig.
Male bellbirds may not provide such a pronounced peak in seed dispersal to song perches after the breeding season, b ecause they seem to use many different perches in the nonbreeding season, and they tend to use subcanopy perches that are not exposed (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Snow (1961, 1970, 1973b) notes that other species of bellbirds (Procnias) preferentially select pe rches on dead trees or branches, or in sparsely vegetated trees.
Bellbirds are clearly an important part of the dispersal system of O.
Some trees were visited by all five species of dispersers, while the tree s far from bellbird perches tended not to be visited by bellbirds.
Behavior of toucanets, bellbirds, and quetzals feeding on lauraceous fruits.
A three-wattled bellbird waggling and booming to impress a female may be the best friend a tropical fruit ever had.
The finding intrigued another bellbird researcher, Nat Wheelwright of Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine.