belligerency


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belligerency

(bəlĭj`ərənsē), in international law, status of parties legally at war. Belligerency exists in a warwar,
armed conflict between states or nations (international war) or between factions within a state (civil war), prosecuted by force and having the purpose of compelling the defeated side to do the will of the victor.
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 between nations or in a civil war if the established government treats the insurgent force as if it were a sovereign power. The rules of international law as formulated at the Hague ConferencesHague Conferences,
term for the International Peace Conference of 1899 (First Hague Conference) and the Second International Peace Conference of 1907 (Second Hague Conference). Both were called by Russia and met at The Hague, the Netherlands.
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 require that belligerency between states be preceded by an absolute declaration of war or an ultimatum prescribing the terms on which the issuing power will refrain from war. When belligerency has been established, the relations between the warring powers are determined by the laws of war (see war, laws ofwar, laws of,
in international law, rules and principles regulating an armed conflict between nations. These laws are designed to minimize the destruction of life and property, to proscribe cruel treatment of noncombatants and prisoners of war, and to establish conditions under
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). In civil wars if the insurgent force is granted belligerency rights, neutral nations generally abstain from supplying or helping either the established government or its opponent. An example of this practice is found in the neutralityneutrality,
in international law, status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. Neutrality is not to be confused with neutralism, or nonalignment, under international law.
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 proclamations issued by European powers in the American Civil War. Neutral nations may refuse to recognize the belligerency of an insurgent, however, and in this way preserve the right to claim any damages that accrue against the established government for having failed to suppress the rebellion without delay. Under its charter, the United Nations recognizes as legitimate only wars that are fought in self-defense, or for the collective enforcement of the UN Charter. All other wars are regarded as illegal acts of aggression. The United Nations also considers civil wars as threatening to international peace, and, when possible, takes measures to end such hostilities (e.g., Kashmir, Palestine, Korea, the Congo, Cyprus).

Bibliography

See W. L. Gould, An Introduction to International Law (1957).

References in periodicals archive ?
Unfortunately, hostility and belligerency has overpowered rationality and forces of unreason have denied progress to the local population of Indian occupied Kashmir.
a[bar] it means they are showing belligerency towards us a[bar] If they do that nobody should blame us for unleashing all of the weapons that we have in the UN to defend ourselves and we have a lot of weapons in the UN," the envoy, Riyad Mansour, said on Friday, according to Ha'aretz.
Third, Nusra has arguably avoided antagonizing the United States and its allies, limiting most of its belligerency to the Syrian territory and, occasionally, eastern Lebanon.
In another resolution, Cabinet said that Indian leaders never accepted the creation of Pakistan and soon after its independence Indian forces occupied Kashmir, where Muslims are in majority and now defying the UN resolutions, instead of giving right of self-determination to Kashmiris, India is resorting to terrorism against Pakistan, the world community should take notice of India's belligerency.
Article 9 dictated the renunciation of war as a "sovereign right of the nation," the removal of the state's "right of belligerency," and the maintenance of "war potential" (p.
About the recent tensions between the ruling PPP in AJK and federal government, Tahir said without mincing words that he was never in favor of political belligerency.
DOHA - With various parts of the Greater Middle East (GNE) constantly making headlines for terrorism and various other types of belligerency, there is a security threat far more wide-spread, touching the majority in this vast region: cyber-crime.
As Pakistanis we all know that Balochistan is a land where patriotic, peaceful and brave people with the help of security forces are successfully countering foreign sponsored belligerency.
Obama declined to join in any anti-Iranian belligerency.
He shows how slowly Americans came even to contemplate, let alone favor, belligerency, accepting it with resignation rather than enthusiasm.
The third and fourth sections cover US belligerency and the Paris Peace Conference.
While halting al acts of belligerency is deemed essential it would be vital to identify the perpetrators, he went on.