belligerency


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belligerency

(bəlĭj`ərənsē), in international law, status of parties legally at war. Belligerency exists in a warwar,
armed conflict between states or nations (international war) or between factions within a state (civil war), prosecuted by force and having the purpose of compelling the defeated side to do the will of the victor.
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 between nations or in a civil war if the established government treats the insurgent force as if it were a sovereign power. The rules of international law as formulated at the Hague ConferencesHague Conferences,
term for the International Peace Conference of 1899 (First Hague Conference) and the Second International Peace Conference of 1907 (Second Hague Conference). Both were called by Russia and met at The Hague, the Netherlands.
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 require that belligerency between states be preceded by an absolute declaration of war or an ultimatum prescribing the terms on which the issuing power will refrain from war. When belligerency has been established, the relations between the warring powers are determined by the laws of war (see war, laws ofwar, laws of,
in international law, rules and principles regulating an armed conflict between nations. These laws are designed to minimize the destruction of life and property, to proscribe cruel treatment of noncombatants and prisoners of war, and to establish conditions under
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). In civil wars if the insurgent force is granted belligerency rights, neutral nations generally abstain from supplying or helping either the established government or its opponent. An example of this practice is found in the neutralityneutrality,
in international law, status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. Neutrality is not to be confused with neutralism, or nonalignment, under international law.
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 proclamations issued by European powers in the American Civil War. Neutral nations may refuse to recognize the belligerency of an insurgent, however, and in this way preserve the right to claim any damages that accrue against the established government for having failed to suppress the rebellion without delay. Under its charter, the United Nations recognizes as legitimate only wars that are fought in self-defense, or for the collective enforcement of the UN Charter. All other wars are regarded as illegal acts of aggression. The United Nations also considers civil wars as threatening to international peace, and, when possible, takes measures to end such hostilities (e.g., Kashmir, Palestine, Korea, the Congo, Cyprus).

Bibliography

See W. L. Gould, An Introduction to International Law (1957).

References in periodicals archive ?
But the nature of politics they are involved at if we look at the above case is some sorts of belligerency. Forget letting these kinds of people propagate such politics, we shouldn't even tolerate these kinds of people.
I don't think their self-proclaimed "belligerency status" will suffer or get affected if we do not involve a third, neutral party or country.
'I don't think their self-proclaimed 'belligerency status' will suffer or get affected if we do not involve a third, neutral party or country,' the senator said.
Lieutenant Colonel Nisar led the charge and resulting in the Indian belligerency being halted.
They also used the talks to win international recognition and constantly angled to perhaps have a crack at the status of belligerency.
When it comes to memories of victories, defeats and occupation, demonic images become part and parcel of the national psyche and are instrumental in keeping mistrust, fear and overall belligerency alive as well as lifting morale.
He carefully hid this militant belligerency from both the public and the press.
They had to be told that their belligerency towards Pakistan was getting out of hand and a suitable response had to be given.
a[bar] it means they are showing belligerency towards us a[bar] If they do that nobody should blame us for unleashing all of the weapons that we have in the UN to defend ourselves and we have a lot of weapons in the UN," the envoy, Riyad Mansour, said on Friday, according to Ha'aretz.
About the recent tensions between the ruling PPP in AJK and federal government, Tahir said without mincing words that he was never in favor of political belligerency. He said it was clear policy of the Prime Minister of Pakistan to respect the mandate of the political parties which was evident that the PPP governments in AJK and Sindh and PTI government in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were not disturbed.
The other party can always change its intentions, and swing away from friendship to belligerency by founding the power ratio in its favour.
As Pakistanis we all know that Balochistan is a land where patriotic, peaceful and brave people with the help of security forces are successfully countering foreign sponsored belligerency. The militancy was geared up when some Baloch Chieftains, like Brahamdagh Bugti, Khan Kalat, Dr.