Worsey concludes that explosion gases are largely responsible for the movement of rock in bench blasting. This emphasizes the critical need to use proper stemming for maximum blast efficiency.
He started by measuring the link between the rate of stemming ejection and the degree of rock-face movement in bench blasting.
To understand how a sinking cut is different from a typical bench blast, one must first understand how bench blasting
works and a term called the borehole effect.
Gou, "A comparative study of ground and underground vibrations induced by bench blasting," Shock and Vibration, vol.
Rai, "Investigation of crushed aggregate as stemming material in bench blasting: a case study," Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, vol.
Deep-hole bench blasting at a height of 10 m is used in this mine, as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.
Li, "Numerical analysis of the stability of abandoned cavities in bench blasting," International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol.
These holes operate on the principle that breaking rock with the face parallel to the blast hole (in a fashion similar to bench blasting
) is one of the most optimal and easiest methods of breakage.
Designing a proper explosive charge and depth of burial requires an understanding of bench blasting
principles and rock breakage mechanisms.
The source of seismic vibrations in the Maglovec quarry near Presov was tristichous bench blasting
Lopez Jimeno, E and Muniz E, 1987 'A new method for the design of bench blasting
' 2nd International Symposium On Rock fragmentation by Blasting, Colorado.
The blast design is such that the outer holes are fired and break as in normal bench blasting
but the others are too constricted to break sideways and therefore break more like a crater blast by swelling the rock in the axial direction.