On the conservation bench terrace (Figure 8-5b) the ridge is generally built up to provide a settled height of 0.3 m above the level of the bench.
For several thousand years, bench terraces have been constructed all over the world (Figure 8-1c).
Bench terraces (Figure 8-1c) are built on steep (20-30 percent) slopes where labor is cheap or land in short supply.
In upper watershed areas of up to 50 percent slopes, the basic approach involves subsidizing bench terrace construction through cash wages and/or agricultural inputs, either provided directly or on credit.
(2) In addition, bench terraces frequently collapse on limestone-based subsoils containing bentonite clay.
An on-farm experiment was conducted on bench terraces
of SW Uganda, in Kabale district during two rainy seasons of 2005 (September-December) and 2006 (March-July) (Plate 1).
Evaluation of Zengg conservation bench terraces
"Over the years, these deposits have formed wide, productive bench terraces
uphill from the hedges."
Nearby at Sayeret Shaked, the soils are deeper, so the foresters construct contour bench terraces
. Trees are planted at the lower edge of the sloped terraces, where the runoff accumulates.
Mountain agriculture is largely dependent on stone-walled bench terraces, some more than 2,500 years old.
The widespread stonewalled bench terraces are the best soil conservation structures for these steep lands.
Chinese farmers are presently under pressure to sustain crop yields in steep-sloped upland areas, and they may be required to produce at a pace that does not allow them to construct or maintain bench terraces
with the same discipline shown by their ancestors (3,6).