The laboratory work included characterization of the soil, bender element test to assess the improved stiffness, as well as the unconfined compression test.
Then, bender element tests were conducted with the GDS BE (bender element) Test System, where P(compression) and S- (shear or transverse) waves were sent through the specimens (Figure 3).
The same specimens used in the non-destructive bender element tests were subjected to the compression tests, eliminating any discrepancies that might arise from non-uniformity of the test specimens prepared.
It is postulated that a plausible explanation is the poor contact between the bender element transducers and the specimen during measurement.
The shear waves were measured by bender elements during an axial compression test as shown in Figure 4.
Santamarina, "Bender elements: performance and signal interpretation," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol.
Santamarina, "Discussion "measuring shear wave velocity using bender elements" by Leong, E.