Figure 12 shows the torsion and bending stiffness
for tailored front rail designs.
If needed, for example, in switch and crossing, the bending stiffness
of the beam can be varied sectionally along the track.
The bending stiffness
and ultimate load carrying capacity of BFRP plates under impact are nearly twice of that under static loading.
The model accounts for both geometric and bending stiffness
. The mass and stiffness matrices were developed by subjecting the cable to an arbitrary time-varying transverse forcing function.
Equation inlay shows the relationship between transverse stiffness of the sample, [k.sub.sample], second-mode bending frequency of the AFM cantilever (shown as the peak in (c)), [f.sub.0,II], second-mode bending stiffness
of the AFM cantilever, [k.sub.II], and measured change in second-mode frequency during scanning, [DELTA][f.sub.II].
He covers tensile properties; the ultrasonic testing of paper; bending stiffness
of papers and corrugated boards: the connection to caliper and tensile stiffness; compression testing of papers, board, and boxes: relationship to tensile testing, elastic modulus, and the influence of artefacts; testing methods for measuring writability and printability of papers; and "beater curves" to evaluate pulp potential: burst, tensile, tear, opacity.
In the particular constraint mode method example, the shear and radial stiffnesses are orders of magnitude smaller than the bending stiffness
. For simplicity, therefore, it is assumed that the shear and radial stiffness are zero and the tire stiffness parameters provided in Table 1 reflect that assumption.
This reduces mass/unit area, enhances acoustical damping, improves impact strength, and increases specific bending stiffness
With the constraints that bending stiffness
of novel hood should not be less than the conventional, in other words, bending modulus of novel hood is higher than or equal to the conventional, it can be described in the following.
In addition, tensile strength and tensile stiffness as well as bending strength and bending stiffness
In general, the trends in the frequencies of the present model resemble that of the traditional model because the frequency equation of [[omega].sub.f][|.sub.V=0] = [(in/L).sup.2] [square root of ([(EI).sub.eff]/[rho]A)] and [[omega].sub.0] are very alike with small difference between the bending stiffness
[(EI).sub.eff] and (EI).