Flavonoids are chemical compounds with a low molecular weight whose base structure (Figure 1) comprises a system of rings of diphenyl pyrene or phenyl benzopyrene
accompanied by two variable groups of hydroxyl phenolic radicals .
Cigarette smoke contains more than 4000 chemicals that can be divided into two phases, i.e., a particulate phase that includes nicotine, tar, and benzopyrene
and a gaseous phase that includes carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and hydrogen cyanide .
), volatile organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins and free radicals.
Tobacco smoke has many harmful substances including benzopyrene
, lead, carbon monoxide, arsenic, ammonia, formaldehyde, and a certain type of cyanide.
Similarly, a significant down-regulation of miR-146a was observed after nicotine and benzopyrene
exposure further signifying the utility of epigenetic profile in assessing exposure associated dysregulations (18).
to degrade benzopyrene
an aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbon of high molecular weight.
Using keratinocytes stimulated by benzopyrene
or TNF-a, Nakahara et al.
(2001) have reported that mercury was the most potent in reducing CP content and MFO activities including CCR and benzopyrene
Rosemary components inhibit benzopyrene
induced genotoxicity in human bronchial cells.
The use of high temperatures (70-80[degrees]C) may lead to the formation of 3, 4, benzopyrene
(Indicator of carcinogenicity).
Cigarette smoke contains benzopyrene
which destroys the vitamin-A in the body.
is a powerful carcinogen which accounts to about 20-40mg per cigarette.