persica roots essential oil (EO) or pure compounds BITC, benzaldehyde (BA), and benzyl cyanide (BC) were prepared in absolute ethanol.
The amount of benzyl cyanide decreased significantly after 2 and 4 uses (p < 0.05) while benzaldehyde contents remained the same (Table 1).
BITC and benzyl cyanide contents in saliva were statically different (p < 0.05) when fresh Miswak was used to clean the teeth (Figure 1(a)).
However, there was no significant effect of a 10 min exposure to 0.5-5 [micro]g/mL of benzyl cyanide except for 10-20 [micro]g/mL (p < 0.05) (Figure 2).
Twenty-four-hour exposure to benzyl cyanide (0.4-3 [micro]g/mL) showed no significant effect on cell viability whereas benzaldehyde showed significant cell toxicity at concentration of 0.8 [micro]g/mL or higher (Figure 3).
Benzaldehyde showed better activity than benzyl cyanide against bacterial strains; however, both compounds were not able to inhibit the bacterial growth at concentration found in saliva or Miswak brushes (Figures 7 and 8).
The other possible antibacterial compounds of Miswak, benzaldehyde and benzyl cyanide, showed less inhibitory effects on the tested bacteria.
Caption: Figure 1: Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), benzyl cyanide (BC), and benzaldehyde (BA) concentration in saliva.
Caption: Figure 2: Gingival fibroblasts cells exposed for 10 min to different concentrations of Miswak oil, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), benzyl cyanide, benzaldehyde, and 2.5 [micro]g/mL of chlorhexidine.
Caption: Figure 3: Gingival fibroblasts cell exposed for 24 h to different concentrations of miswak essential oil, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), benzyl cyanide, and benzaldehyde.
As reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Hilker and her co-workers determined that when a female cabbage butterfly lays her eggs on a Brussels sprout plant and attaches her treasures to the leaves with tiny dabs of glue, the vigilant vegetable detects the presence of a simple additive in the glue, benzyl cyanide. Cued by the additive, the plant swiftly alters the chemistry of its leaf surface to beckon female parasitic wasps.
Here's the lurid Edgar Allan Poetry of it: that benzyl cyanide tip-off was donated to the female butterfly by the male during mating.