October 9, 2014--Harvard University stem cell researchers using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were able for the first time to create human insulin-producing beta cells
equivalent in almost every way to normally functioning beta cells
in the kind of massive quantities needed for cell transplantation and pharmaceutical purposes.
Robert Screaton, senior scientist at the CHEO Research Institute and associate professor at the University of Ottawa, started with a gene "knockout" strategy to remove a protein called SIK2 from all beta cells
Exendin-4 revived idle beta cells
and boosted their insulin production, Herold says.
The oxidative stress is the major underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced beta cell
damage and its devastating complications.
Transgenic expression of dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain protein in beta cells
protects against Fas ligand- induced apoptosis and reduces spontaneous diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.
Transcription factors in islet development and physiology: role of PDX-1 in beta cell
Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell
function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population.
It had been reported that pre-existing beta cells
, rather than pluripotent stem cells, were the major source of new beta cells
after pancreatectomy in mice and during adult life, suggesting that terminally differentiated beta cells
retained a significant proliferative capacity in vivo thereby casting doubt on the idea that adult stem cells play a significant role in beta cell
replacement (Dor et al.
Disruption of Tsc2 in pancreatic beta cells
induces beta cell
mass expansion and improved glucose tolerance in a TORC1-dependent manner.
And what's more, the scientists discovered that the beta cell
regenerates cells around it when it dies.
function and glycaemic control following one year exenatide therapy, and after 12 week wash-out, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Team leader Dr Terry Strom said: "It would appear by altering the inflammatory state that surrounds this disease, you create an environment that enables expansion of the beta cell