According to the company, Strontium-89 is a pure beta emitter
and selectively irradiates sites of primary and metastatic bone involvement with minimal irradiation of soft tissues distant from bone lesions.
However, in its native state tritium is a low-energy beta emitter
and, as beta particles do not penetrate human skin, is typically harmless to humans.
Furthermore, the optimal energy window for a particular beta emitter
is still a matter of debate within the research community .
It also contains a Beta Activity Determination Chart to determine the activity of a known beta emitter
from a measurement with the monitor.
Strontium-90 (beta emitter
) concentrations were determined in foods of Alaska Native peoples using caribou taken in 1961 from Shungnak, which had 2.5-3.0 Bq/g ash for bone and 0.02-0.06 Bq/g ash for meat.
I then chose three species, 3H (a pure beta emitter
with no gammas), 18F and 22Na (both of which decay by both electron capture and positron emission) and was somewhat surprised to see them as having no betas or, in the case of the latter two, as undergoing electron capture with no mention of positron decay.
Injecting phosphorus-32, a pure beta emitter
, into the affected joints achieves the same result without the surgery and for a cost of perhaps only $4,000, he says.
So we must adjust the half-life of the radioisotope to the right biological time frame while also having a good beta emitter
that provides a good uniform dose to the tumor."
Based on the zero threshold energy for neutrino absorption beta emitters
, a model for configuration mixing between distinct [[beta].sup.v]-disintegration (the electrons from neutrino interaction) and the [[beta].sup.-]-disintegration (the electrons from natural decay) was proposed.
The therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals market is further segmented into beta emitters
, alpha emitters, and brachytherapy.
For medium and high-energy beta emitters
, a radionuclide calibrator expanded uncertainty no greater than 5% (k - 2) is suggested, while for low-energy beta emitters
an expanded uncertainty no greater than 10% (k - 2) is recommended .