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see particle acceleratorparticle accelerator,
apparatus used in nuclear physics to produce beams of energetic charged particles and to direct them against various targets. Such machines, popularly called atom smashers, are needed to observe objects as small as the atomic nucleus in studies of its
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A device for accelerating charged particles in an orbit by means of the electric field E from a slowly changing magnetic flux &PHgr;. The electric field is given by E = -(1/2&pgr;ro) d&PHgr;/dt (in SI or mks units), where ro is the orbit radius. The name was chosen because the method was first applied to electrons. In the usual betatron both the accelerating core flux and a guiding magnetic field rise with similar time dependence, with the result that the orbit is circular. However, the orbit can have a changing radius as acceleration progresses. For the long path (usually more than 60 mi or 100 km), variations of axial and radial magnetic field components provide focusing forces, while space charge and space current forces due to the particle beam itself also contribute to the resulting betatron oscillations about the equilibrium orbit. In many other instances of particle beams, the term betatron oscillations is used for the particle oscillations about a beam's path.

Collective effects from self-fields of the beam have been found important and helpful in injecting. Circulating currents of about 3 amperes are contained in the numerous industrial and therapeutic betatrons, although the average currents are below 10-7 A. See Particle accelerator


A device for accelerating electrons in an evacuated ring by means of a time-varying magnetic flux encircled by the ring. Also known as rheotron.


Physics a type of particle accelerator for producing high-energy beams of electrons, having an alternating magnetic field to keep the electrons in a circular orbit of fixed radius and accelerate them by magnetic induction. It produces energies of up to about 300 MeV
References in periodicals archive ?
Stability of motion about the stationary reference orbit is described in terms of betatron oscillations with energy dependent Twiss parameters and betatron tunes.
6, in order to shorten the damping time of the betatron oscillation of the positron beam.
SURF I operated in a betatron mode and relied upon the laminated design to reduce electrical losses due to eddy currents.
The betatron machine was brought from Russia by JME Engineering and given to Walsgrave for development.
Among the many accomplishments of its faculty and alumni are sound-on-film technology, residential air-conditioning, the transistor, modern antennas, the light-emitting diode, the betatron, the theory of superconductivity, the plasma screen, the integrated circuit, and such software as Lotus Notes, NCSA Telnet, and Mosaic, the World Wide Web's first browser.