The Panay epic of "Humadapnon" has a long description of the preparation of betel nut
chew by women.
Conclusion: Awareness regarding the detrimental effects of betel nut
was satisfactory amongst the subjects, but the population was not willing to quit the habit.
Taiwan has adopted a passive three no's policy 'no encouragement, no prohibition, no advisory' on betel nuts
for over 30 years, despite they are listed as group 1 carcinogens according to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) standards.
About 65 to 75% of OSCC patients are linked to smoking, 30% with alcoholism and 26% with betel nut
chewing.6-8 Association between genetic factors, poor nutritional status, chronic viral and fungal infections, pre-existing oral disease and bad oral hygiene is also observed in other studies.9-11 Clinically lesion may be ulcerative, exophytic or verrucous.12 Site of involvement is typical for particular risk factor and area exposed to risk factor.13
Selling betel nut
to adults will not be banned as city officials understand vendors need to earn a living.
Table-1: Potentially malignant lesions and conditions attributable to the use of alcohol, tobacco and betel nut
Throwing of cigarette butts, cola cans, tissue paper or spitting after chewing betel nuts
or tobacco has to be taken seriously and fines must be followed with imprisonment.
Earlier there was a female predilection as reported by Pindborg et al due to the widespread female habit of chewing betel nut
and conventional betel quid.
Other materials used for the preparing the offering are betel-vine leaves (sirih), gambier leaves (sedi'/kelait), tobacco (semakau), lime paste (kapu'), dried wild banana leaves (daun rukuk gentu % betel nuts
(buah pinang), dried nipah leaves used as tobacco wrappers (rukuk apung), salt (garam), rice wine (tuak) and red threads.
Presence of phenolic compounds like hydroxychavicol and safrole, and phytochemicals like tannins, gallic acid, catechin, -sitosterol, gum and amino acids have been reported in betel nut
(Wang et al., 1997; Duke, 1992).
It is also known as betel nut
. Betel quid or paan is chewed as a breath freshener.
"If they spit the betel nuts
with discipline, then there will be no issues," said Mar Mar Phyu, a betel nut