biathlon

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biathlon

(bīăth`lŏn), sport in which cross-country skiers race across hilly terrain, occasionally stopping to shoot, prone or standing as required, with rifles at sets of fixed targets. The biathlon features the 10-km (6.2-mi) sprint, in which contestants shoot at two sets of targets; the 12.5-km (7.8-mi) pursuit, in which contestants shoot four times and start at intervals determined by their finish in the sprint; the 20-km (12.5-mi) race with four shooting stops; a 30 contestant, 15-km (9.3-mi) mass start race with four shooting stops; and a relay race with four 7.5-km (4.7-mi) legs and two shooting stops per leg. The women's races are shorter: a 7.5-km (4.7-mi) sprint, a 10-km (6.2-mi) pursuit, a 15-km (9.3-mi) race, a 12.5-km (7.8-mi) mass start race, and a relay with 6-km (3.7-mi) legs. In the mixed relay, two women and then two men ski a leg of the appropriate length. Competitors are penalized for each missed target by having a standard length added to the course distance that they must complete, or by having a minute added to their time. The control of fine motor skills and breathing required to shoot after the skiing segment makes this a demanding sport. Biathlon competition developed from the military training of ski troops. The sport first became an official part of the Winter Olympics in 1960. Biathlon has also recently acquired meaning as applied to a combined two-sport competition, such as running and swimming.

Biathlon

 

a modern winter two-event competition—ski racing with riflery. While covering a distance of 20 km, the athlete makes five shots each at four firing ranges between the fifth and 18th kilometers: twice at a target 30 cm in diameter (while upright) and twice at a target 15 cm in diameter (while prostrate). The distance to the targets is 150 m. For each miss there is a penalty of two minutes, which are added to the time shown in the ski race. In 1960 the biathlon was incorporated into the program of the winter Olympic games. The winners of the Olympic games have been K. Lestander, a Swede (1960, Squaw Valley), Soviet athlete V. Melan’in (1964, Innsbruck), and M. Solberg (1968,Grenoble). At the Xth Olympics (1968, Grenoble) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by the team of Soviet biathlonists (A. Tikhonov, N. Puzanov, V. Mamatov, and V.Gundartsev). Among Soviet athletes, world champions in the biathlon have been V. Melan’in (1959), V. Mamatov (1967), A. Tikhonov (1969), and A. Ushakov (juniors, 1969). In the world championship (1969) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet athletes A. Tikhonov, V. Mamatov, V. Gundartsev, and R. Safin, and the 3 x 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet juniors V. Tolkachev, A. Tagirov, and A. Ushakov.

References in periodicals archive ?
Another Slovak biathlete Pauliacutena Fialkova placed 35th.
One of the most vulnerable moments is when a biathlete has hit four targets and is about to take the last shot.
On the slopes, Alpine skiing will take centre stage for the women's giant slalom, while both male and female biathletes will be going for gold in the pursuit.
Caption: ABOVE RIGHT: Cadet biathletes, some from Team Ontario (firing lanes 1 to 4), shoot during the sprint race event.
TALENTED young biathletes from Merchant Taylors' Junior Girls' School have won through to the National Finals of the British Schools' Modern Biathlon Championships.
After a forgettable week to begin the year, Baltic biathletes posted some more positive results in the second event of the New Year.
The Coventry school hit the ground running with their netballers, rugby and hockey players plus biathletes all making a significant impact during 2010.
Biathletes Tobias Eberhard, Nina Klenovska and Martina Beck are police officers who have swapped their pistols for rifles to compete in Vancouver.
"There is very little difference between cross country and biathlon but they like to give me some grief and say that biathletes have to take two breaks every 10 kilometres.
Six Austrian crosscountry skiers and four biathletes who underwent doping tests at the weekend are still waiting for the results to be announced.
Instead, they make the errant biathletes complete a further 150-metre penalty loop for every target missed - rather like a quick ten press-ups for dropping the ball at cricket practice.