biathlon

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biathlon

(bīăth`lŏn), sport in which cross-country skiers race across hilly terrain, occasionally stopping to shoot, prone or standing as required, with rifles at sets of fixed targets. The biathlon features the 10-km (6.2-mi) sprint, in which contestants shoot at two sets of targets; the 12.5-km (7.8-mi) pursuit, in which contestants shoot four times and start at intervals determined by their finish in the sprint; the 20-km (12.5-mi) race with four shooting stops; a 30 contestant, 15-km (9.3-mi) mass start race with four shooting stops; and a relay race with four 7.5-km (4.7-mi) legs and two shooting stops per leg. The women's races are shorter: a 7.5-km (4.7-mi) sprint, a 10-km (6.2-mi) pursuit, a 15-km (9.3-mi) race, a 12.5-km (7.8-mi) mass start race, and a relay with 6-km (3.7-mi) legs. In the mixed relay, two women and then two men ski a leg of the appropriate length. Competitors are penalized for each missed target by having a standard length added to the course distance that they must complete, or by having a minute added to their time. The control of fine motor skills and breathing required to shoot after the skiing segment makes this a demanding sport. Biathlon competition developed from the military training of ski troops. The sport first became an official part of the Winter Olympics in 1960. Biathlon has also recently acquired meaning as applied to a combined two-sport competition, such as running and swimming.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Biathlon

 

a modern winter two-event competition—ski racing with riflery. While covering a distance of 20 km, the athlete makes five shots each at four firing ranges between the fifth and 18th kilometers: twice at a target 30 cm in diameter (while upright) and twice at a target 15 cm in diameter (while prostrate). The distance to the targets is 150 m. For each miss there is a penalty of two minutes, which are added to the time shown in the ski race. In 1960 the biathlon was incorporated into the program of the winter Olympic games. The winners of the Olympic games have been K. Lestander, a Swede (1960, Squaw Valley), Soviet athlete V. Melan’in (1964, Innsbruck), and M. Solberg (1968,Grenoble). At the Xth Olympics (1968, Grenoble) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by the team of Soviet biathlonists (A. Tikhonov, N. Puzanov, V. Mamatov, and V.Gundartsev). Among Soviet athletes, world champions in the biathlon have been V. Melan’in (1959), V. Mamatov (1967), A. Tikhonov (1969), and A. Ushakov (juniors, 1969). In the world championship (1969) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet athletes A. Tikhonov, V. Mamatov, V. Gundartsev, and R. Safin, and the 3 x 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet juniors V. Tolkachev, A. Tagirov, and A. Ushakov.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
At the English schools' biathlon in Norwich earlier this year Lizzy finished in first place, ahead of her sister who picked up silver.
The girls, who are mainly swimmers, competed in just their fourth ever biathlon in Manchester.
In the Winter Olympics, a well-established Nordic event that combines cross-country skiing and target-shooting is known as the "biathlon." Understandably, members of the International Biathlon Union did not want another event in the Olympics with the same name as theirs.
"Doin' the 'du'" is less demanding than starting out with a triathlon, but is still challenging enough to be fun--especially on courses like that of NYTC's "New York Biathlon," held twice each season in Harriman State Park.
"Our main goal for the Summer Biathlons is to provide a great day out for the sporting community, for the public in Bahrain and nearby countries to participate and appreciate sports, competing in a friendly atmosphere, challenging their skills and fitness," he said.
Sports event consultant, Adnan Al Qassab, said: "A biathlon is any sporting event made up of two disciplines and in our case we will feature swimming followed by running.
That summer, he completed a 100-mile bike ride called a Century, and in the fall of that year, he participated in a biathlon (a two-and-a-half mile run, followed by a 12-mile bike ride, completed by a second two-and-a-half mile run).