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While both responses were blocked by the classical GABA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline, they did not cross-desensitize, and only the acetylcholine (ACh) response was blocked by [alpha]-bungarotoxin and strychnine.
2,599 items of experiments involved in drug testing protocols ((2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), bicuculline (BIC), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), tetrodotoxin (TTX), octanol (OCT), carbenoxolone (CBX), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), etc.).
Interestingly, the effect produced by both synthetic flavonoids was partially ameliorated by coadministration of bicuculline (a competitive [gamma]-aminobutyric acid binding site antagonist), suggesting the modulation/direct activation of the GABAa receptors, as is the case with neurosteroids with antidepressant-like activity [85, 86].
GABA, the predominant neurotransmitter within the SCN, was found to have a significant role in the coupling of dorsomedial and ventrolateral SCN, with the addition of the GABAA blocker bicuculline to SCN slice cultures mimicking the effect of physically disconnecting the two SCN subregions with a knife cut [73].
The immunohistological finding that CSF IgGs react predominantly with the presynaptic terminals of GABAergic interneurons and not with the postsynaptic PCs (Figure 2(b)), together with the observation that inhibition of the pairedpulse ratio during the inhibitory phase by CSF IgG mimics that of presynaptic inhibitors (low [Ca.sup.2+]) but not postsynaptic antagonists (bicuculline) [31, 32], has led to the conclusion that the CSF IgG-mediated synaptic depression is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms.
Bokonjic, "The lack of bicuculline and picrotoxin influence on midazolam depressant action on brain oxygen consumption," Neuroscience Letters, vol.
In an experiment named bicuculline model of seizures with piglets, Parfenova and Colleagues showed that HO-1 inducer stabbed seizure activity [60].
sIPSCs and mIPSCs changes after the neonatal exposure were recorded and confirmed by the application of the GABA[sub]A receptor antagonist bicuculline. There was no significant difference in the mean frequency or amplitude of sIPSCs among the control, propofol, or etomidate groups.
elata methanol extract was significantly reversed by the [GABA.sub.A] receptor antagonist bicuculline (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in a dose-related manner, but not by the [GABA.sub.B] receptor antagonist SCH 50,911 (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.).
The ACSF (in mM) for recording sEPSCs consisted of 126NaCl, 2.5KCl, 2CaC[1.sub.2], 2MgS[O.sub.4]x7[H.sub.2]O, 1.5Na[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4]x2[H.sub.2]O, 25NaHC[O.sub.3], 10 glucose x [H.sub.2]O, and 0.03 bicuculline (BIC, Sigma-Aldrich).
The active lever press decrease for FR schedule and breakpoint suppression for PR schedule were reversed by pretreatment with the selective [GABA.sub.A] antagonist bicuculline or the selective [GABA.sub.B] antagonist SCH50911, suggesting acupuncture on SI-5-mediated morphine craving through the GABAergic pathway.
This fraction can be reduced further to 1.4% when neuronal activity during culture is enhanced with the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline. In contrast, block of neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX) increases the Ntype fraction to 87%.