No fone [m] houve contato entre a lingua e o palato, mesmo tratando-se de um fone bilabial
; no fone [n] houve recuo da lingua, com constricao na regiao palatal; e no fone [[??]] a constricao ocorreu em uma regiao mais anteriorizada, em relacao ao falante normal, isto e, com avanco da lingua.
Generally speaking, the restriction against two same-place consonants was reduced when a bilabial
was in the initial syllable and a coronal sonorant was in a non-initial syllable.
Furthermore, they show that in both aspirated and unaspirated stops, VOT is shortest for bilabial stops and intermediate for alveolar stops, with the exception of the unaspirated stops in Tamil and the aspirated stops in Cantonese and Eastern Armenian.
According to Cho and Ladefoged (1999), there are two ways of considering this: firstly, the cavity behind the velar stop has a smaller volume than that behind the alveolar or bilabial stops; secondly, the cavity in front of the velar stop has a larger volume than that in front of the alveolar or bilabial stops.
Because the velar stop has extensive contact between the tongue body and the palate, there is a larger Bernoulli force so that the change in cross- sectional area is relatively slow compared with that for the bilabial or alveolar stops.
Table 3: Mean VOT and standard deviation for Pahari bilabial stops
* VOTs of dental and alveolar are less than bilabial and this provides the evidence against the claim that VOT difference is the relative size of the supra-glottal cavity behind the point of constriction (Maddieson, 1977).
/p/ [right arrow] [p, b, [p.sup.h], [??]] /t/ [right arrow] [t, d, [t.sup.h], [??]] /k/ [right arrow] [k, g, [k.sup.h], [??]] /?/ [right arrow] [?,[??]] The bilabial, alveolar, and velar stops /p, t, k/ are voiced after nasals and glides in word-initial and word-medial clusters, but not word-finally.
Nevertheless, the voiceless bilabial stop /p/ is most often unreleased word-finally when following a bilabial nasal /m/.
An unreleased bilabial stop has also been reported for Oaxaca Chontal, another Mesoamerican language spoken in Oaxaca (Maddieson et al.
There are two nasals in bilabial and in alveolar position: /m, n/.
Glides occur in bilabial and palatal position: /w, y/.