British commercial policy had begun gloriously with Prime Minister Peel's unilateral embrace of free trade in 1846 and had survived attempts at changing it to protectionism and bilateralism
once Britain had seen the emergence of Germany and the United States as a challenge to her trade hegemony.
China, Japan and Korea in a few short years have become the most ardent advocates for trade bilateralism
, thus redrawing the boundaries of regionalism.
One is the "dynamic time path" issue: whether bilateralism
aids convergence to a multilateral liberalization outcome.
Although he is aware of the imperial arrogance of the West's attempt to mediate in conflict, central to Ignatieff's polemic is his belief in a humanitarian universalism, which he sees as the self-fulfilling prophecy of liberalism, able to flourish now that Cold War bilateralism
has come to an end.
However, this liberal stance was advanced within the overall framework of national sovereignty over airspace and bilateralism
. In practice, both states remained mercantilist.
In the last two decades, the non-discrimination norm has come under challenge from bilateralism
, regionalism, and conditional most-favored nation agreements.
and the EC favor bilateralism
in some contexts and multilateralism in others.
During his weekly briefing, Foreign Office Spokesperson Dr Faisal said Pakistan has not gone on the back foot on bilateralism
. 'Indian occupying forces have been deployed at every corner in the valley as the clampdown enters its fourth week.'
Indra Gandhi in July 1972 had locked the internationally recognized Kashmir dispute into the cocoon of bilateralism
and afterwards India has successfully convinced the International community of its being an issue of bilateral nature.
In Kashmir's context, bilateralism
masks an attempted bullyism.
India's use of the bilateralism
mantra to avoid talks in this fashion is merely prompting world powers to plunge in.
has been a spectacular failure and nothing has changed in the intransigent position of India.