bilharziasis


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schistosomiasis

schistosomiasis (shĭsˈtəsōmīˈəsĭs), bilharziasis (bĭlˌhärzīˈəsĭs), or snail fever, parasitic disease caused by blood flukes, trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma. Three species are human parasites: S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium. The disease is prevalent in Asia, some Pacific islands, Africa, the West Indies, South America, Spain, Puerto Rico, and Cyprus. The larvae of the parasite are harbored by snails, which serve as intermediate hosts, and infect humans who bathe in or otherwise come in contact with infested waters. The larvae enter through the skin, migrate via the blood vessels, and mature in the lungs. From there they travel to the veins of the upper or lower intestine or bladder and reproduce. Some eggs pass out in the feces. Others are carried into the liver, where the body surrounds them with white blood cells, forming hundreds of tiny ball-like granulomas that eventually impair the liver's ability to function. It is believed that the flukes settle in blood vessels that have a particular human immune substance, tumor necrosis factor, that they require in order to reproduce.

The disease is characterized by a skin eruption at the site of entry, fever, diarrhea, and other symptoms, depending on the tissues affected; cirrhosis of the liver is common. The disease can be cured with the drug praziquantel, but reinfection can occur. Although symptoms vary according to the species of infecting fluke, all forms can result in general weakening and eventual death. Control of the disease is difficult, but control of the snail populations that serve as intermediate hosts is effective in reducing the incidence of the disease. Proper sanitation and disposal of human wastes are also important.

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bilharziasis

[‚bil‚här′ze·ə·səs]
(medicine)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Regarding viremic contacts of HCV-negative cases, the six contacts had past history of hospitalization, surgical procedures, and exposure to used syringe and were circumcised by nonmedical personnel, and three of them had past history of injection treatment for Bilharziasis (unpresented data).
Now facing a variety of threats ranging from bilharziasis tot he dumping of raw sewage, industrial and agricultural effluents, the longest river in the world has slowly been turned into a death sentence for Egypt's millions."
These included syphilis (the most common cause of morbidity and mortality), malaria, bilharziasis, leprosy, tuberculosis, trauma (from drinking, fights, and automobile crashes), burns from cooking fires and lightning, malnutrition, and pregnancy-related complications.
The hyacinth also provides cover for poisonous snakes, as well as breeding grounds for malarial mosquitoes and snails that host a flatworm that causes bilharziasis (schistosomiasis).
McDonnell Foundation and the Wellcome Trust and from the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharziasis, is a third parasitic disease affecting human beings.
Bilharziasis Parasites called blood flukes are responsible for this disease, which affects 200 million people a year in Egypt, Africa, the Far East, South America, Portugal and Cyprus.
truncatus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) is one of the major vectors of various species of Schistosoma, agents of bilharziasis in humans and cattle in Africa (Brown 1994).
Schistosomiasis Snail 200 million 200,000 (Bilharziasis)
Bilharziasis survey in British West and East Africa, Nyassaland and the Rhodesias.
Exactly one-quarter of the students (25%) knew that hepatitis C is not a STDs while approximately one-third of them know that malaria (34.5%) and Bilharziasis (37.8%) are not STDs while slightly more than half of them knew that Dengue fever is not a STDs (53.5%).