examination

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examination

1. Education
a. written exercises, oral questions, or practical tasks, set to test a candidate's knowledge and skill
b. (as modifier): an examination paper
2. Med
a. physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body, in order to verify health or diagnose disease
b. laboratory study of secretory or excretory products, tissue samples, etc., esp in order to diagnose disease
3. Law the formal interrogation of a person on oath, esp of an accused or a witness

Examination

 

(Russian, ekzamen), in the USSR, a comprehensive survey of the knowledge of a student or of a person graduating from or entering an educational institution. Unlike tests (zachety), examinations—both oral and written—are always graded.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the system of examinations that existed in Russia was abolished. The following examinations were made compulsory in the 1930’s: annual promotion examinations in general-education schools, beginning in fourth grade; admission, or entrance, examinations for higher and specialized secondary educational institutions; and semester final and state graduation examinations in higher and specialized secondary educational institutions.

In 1944 graduation examinations were instituted for students of incomplete secondary and secondary schools. According to the Statute on the Secondary General-Education School of 1970, the procedure for administering examinations in secondary general-education schools is determined by the ministries of education (or public education) of the Union republics. Compulsory graduation examinations are given in the eighth and 10th (or 11th) grades. Students who pass them receive a certificate of completion of an eight-year school or a certificate of secondary education. Promotion examinations may be instituted for the fourth through seventh grades and the ninth (or 10th) grade by the ministry of education (or public education) of a Union republic. There may be no more than three such examinations per grade. The certificate of completion of an eight-year school and the certificate of secondary education may also be received through the system of extramural education.

In higher and specialized secondary educational institutions, the time and procedure for administering competitive entrance examinations, semester finals, and state graduation examinations are determined by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR according to the type of school. Students who have passed all tests are permitted to take the semester final examinations, and students who have passed all the semester finals may take the graduation examinations.

At many institutions of higher learning and at many technicums, defense of a diploma project or diploma thesis replaces state examinations in special disciplines. Vocational-technical schools and vocational courses give qualifying examinations for certain ratings, or ranks, in various lines of work. In addition to qualifying examinations, secondary vocational-technical schools also give graduation examinations in general-education subjects.

REFERENCE

Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR: Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola: Sb.dokumentov 1917–1973. Moscow, 1974. Pages 161–64, 170–72, 228–35,420–36.

F. I. PUZYREV

What does it mean when you dream about an examination?

Dreaming about taking a test could indicate that the dreamer has a fear of failure. Alternatively, such a dream could indicate that a specific issue of great importance to the dreamer reminds them of being in school. “Passing the test” can also be a metaphor for successfully concluding any number of different activities.

References in periodicals archive ?
Data analysis was performed for 842 patients, as 77 patients did not undergo bimanual examination and their responses were not recorded.
Although the study was conducted in tertiary care centres, ultrasound was employed only when completion of abortion could not be confirmed by patient report and bimanual examination, and was utilized for only 13 women, four of whom required further intervention or aspiration of the uterus.
5) Although the RVE has not been studied as a screening test in asymptomatic outpatients, a study of the more commonly performed bimanual examination revealed that it is of questionable value as a screening strategy.
Performing a final bimanual examination in the operating room after the establishment of surgical level anesthesia and immediately prior to skin incision will avoid this situation.
On bimanual examination the uterus was found to be of normal size and no adnexal masses were palpable.
When the preoperative bimanual examination detected a left adnexal mass, the odds of finding one at surgery increased 2.
Upon physical examination, he had low-grade fever and a tender palpable pelvic mass that was soft to firm in consistency on bimanual examination.
Many mid-level clinicians have been trained to assess pregnancy duration accurately, either by a combination of bimanual examination and dating of last menstrual period (LMP) or by ultrasonography.
As a general rule, I advise leaving at least a handsbreadth distance (approximately 8-10 cm) between the endoscope and the top of an elevated uterus or leiomyoma during bimanual examination, with the patient under anesthesia.
On bimanual examination, a firm fusiform mass was palpated along the course of Wharton's duct on the left; the mass was tender to palpation.
When seen in clinic 1 week later, pelvic examination revealed normal-appearing external genitalia, and an 8-week-size nontender uterus with unremarkable adnexal structures on bimanual examination.
Even in these days of obstetric ultrasound, the bimanual examination still has a role in dating early pregnancies.