# binary

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## binary

1. Maths Computing of, relating to, or expressed in binary notation or binary code
2. (of a compound or molecule) containing atoms of two different elements
3. Metallurgy (of an alloy) consisting of two components or phases
4. (of an educational system) consisting of two parallel forms of education such as the grammar school and the secondary modern in Britain
5. Maths Logic (of a relation, expression, or operation) applying to two elements of its domain; having two argument places; dyadic
6. Astronomy See binary star
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

## binary

[′bīn·ə·rē]
(computer science)
Possessing a property for which there exists two choices or conditions, one choice excluding the other.
(science and technology)
Composed of or characterized by two parts or elements.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## binary

(mathematics)
Base two. A number representation consisting of zeros and ones used by practically all computers because of its ease of implementation using digital electronics and Boolean algebra.

(file format)

## binary

(programming)
A description of an operator which takes two arguments. See also unary, ternary.

## binary

(1) A binary is an executable program. See bin and bin file.

(2) Meaning two. Binary is the principle behind digital computers. All input to the computer is converted into binary digits that are either 0 or 1. For example, when you press the "A" key on your keyboard, the keyboard circuit generates and transfers the number 01000001 to the computer's RAM as a series of pulses with different voltages. The bits are stored as temporarily charged cells in RAM, as permanent charges in a solid state drive (SSD) or as microscopic magnets on a hard drive. The computer's display screen and printers convert the binary numbers into visual characters.

Circuits Are Binary
The electronic circuits that process these binary numbers are also based on binary. They are made up of on/off switches (transistors) that are electrically opened and closed. The current flowing through one switch turns on (or off) another switch, and so on. These switches open and close in nanoseconds and picoseconds (billionths and trillionths of a second). See Boolean gates.

Smaller Spots - Faster Switches
A computer's capability to do work is based on its workspace capacity (RAM), storage capacity (disk or SSD) and the speed of its circuits. Greater capacities are achieved by making the memory cells or magnetic spots smaller. Faster circuit speeds are achieved by shortening the time it takes to open and close the transistor (electronic switch). In order to increase computer performance, we keep improving binary technologies. See binary numbers, binary values, binary file, binary standard and binaries.

### How Binary Numbers Work

In the decimal numbering system, adding 9 and 1 produces a result of 0 in the 1s position plus a carry of 1. The carry jumps over to the 10s position on the left.

`             carry--19+  1____10`

Binary numbers use only the digits 0 and 1. The following example adds 1 ten times in succession in both base 2 (binary) and base 10 (decimal). The carry occurs many more times in binary because there are only two digits (0 or 1).

```  Binary      Decimal

0           0

+  1        +  1
____        ____
1           1

+  1        +  1
____        ____
10           2

+  1        +  1
____        ____
11           3

+  1        +  1
____        ____
100           4

+  1        +  1
____        ____
101           5

+  1        +  1
____        ____
110           6

+  1        +  1
____        ____
111           7

+  1        +  1
____        ____
1000           8

+  1        +  1
____        ____
1001           9

+  1        +  1
____        ____
1010          10
```

For the True Geek This analog wristwatch displays the hours in binary. Only four bits (1, 2, 4 and 8) are required to hold 12 hours. The hour hand is currently at 10 o'clock, which shows the 2-bit and 8-bit turned on. (Image courtesy of Cadence Watch Company.)
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
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