This amount of carrier shift was accounted for in the receiver design and posed no problem to communications, but Doppler also affects the 8-kb/s binary phase-shift keying
(BPSK) signal that occupies approximately 10 kHz of bandwidth, as shown in Figure 2.
This article offers closed-form expressions for FOBP for classical binary phase-shift keying
(BPSK), quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) (including offset QPSK (OQPSK)) and minimum-shift keying (MSK) modulation.
A binary phase-shift keying
(BPSK) modulated signal is a simple example to describe the frequency error effect.
Complex modulation formats such as binary phase-shift keying
, quadrature phase-shift keying and 64 quadrature amplitude modulation required for testing RF digital communications systems may be accomplished by driving the I/Q inputs with analog signals.
Simple modulators for schemes such as amplitude-shift keying (ASK), binary phase-shift keying
(BPSK) and frequency-shift keying (FSK) can be designed using a wide range of techniques.
The tracking range is [+ or -]2 MHz for 64 kbps binary phase-shift keying
(BPSK) or 128 kbps for quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), and [+ or -]1 MHz for 1 Mbps BPSK or 2 Mbps QPSK.