The frame effects a binary separation between work and world, reality and representation, art and life.
According to Schapiro, the "message" of the picture frame is one of simple binary separation: "What is within this frame is 'art,' not life" or, less controversially, "[w]hat is within this frame is representational, not real." Genette's extensive account of the functions of paratexts, however, illustrates a vast variety of illocutionary messages, including, but not limited to "this is art" or "this is representation," opening up the binary separation that Schapiro and Uspensky articulate into a multiplicity of possibilities.
In their model, the mere fact of having a frame creates the work/world binary separation, while a secondary message may, perhaps, be created by the specific type of frame to the degree to which it may participate in the painting's composition.
As Saussurean semiotics and Derridean deconstruction have convincingly shown us, in fact, the binary separation of art/life or representation/reality is impossible because one term can only be defined in relation to the other.
The selection of the zones containing two columns among the five zones was carried out in accordance with the general principle that an increase in the number of columns per zone usually leads to a better separation performance in a standard four-zone SMB for binary separation. According to such principle, zones II to V in a five-zone SMB should have two columns because these four zones are responsible for the separation between A and B in the same manner as in a standard four-zone SMB for binary separation.
Until the middle of 1990s, most of SMB researches have been focused on a standard four-zone SMB for binary separations (Figure 1).
Those speakers and exhibitors who were heavily involved in the smaller molecule pharmaceutical area had by far the major interest in SMB, as it is best suited to binary separations
, but is not yet a viable technique for most biological separations.