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see biological diversitybiological diversity
or biodiversity,
the number of species in a given habitat. Scientists have variously estimated that there are from 3 to 30 million extant species, of which 2.
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The variety of all living things; a contraction of biological diversity. Biodiversity can be measured on many biological levels ranging from genetic diversity within a species to the variety of ecosystems on Earth, but the term most commonly refers to the number of different species in a defined area.

Numbers of extant species for selected taxonomic groups
Number of Estimated number Percent
Kingdom Phylum species described of species described
Protista 100,000 250,000 40.0
Fungi Eumycota 80,000 1,500,000 5.3
Plantae Bryophyta 14,000 30,000 46.7
Tracheophyta 250,000 500,000 50.0
Animalia Nematoda 20,000 1,000,000 2.0
Arthropoda 1,250,000 20,000,000 5.0
Mollusca 100,000 200,000 50.0
Chordata 40,000 50,000 80.0
*With permission, modified from G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll, Principles of Conservation Biology, 1997.

Recent estimates of the total number of species range from 7 to 20 million, of which only about 1.75 million species have been scientifically described. The best-studied groups include plants and vertebrates (phylum Chordata), whereas poorly described groups include fungi, nematodes, and arthropods (see table). Species that live in the ocean and in soils remain poorly known. For most groups of species, there is a gradient of increasing diversity from the Poles to the Equator, and the vast majority of species are concentrated in the tropical and subtropical regions.

Human activities, such as direct harvesting of species, introduction of alien species, habitat destruction, and various forms of habitat degradation (including environmental pollution), have caused dramatic losses of biodiversity; current extinction rates are estimated to be 100–1000 times higher than prehuman extinction rates.

Some measure of biodiversity is responsible for providing essential functions and services that directly improve human life. For example, many medicines, clothing fibers, and industrial products and the vast majority of foods are derived from naturally occurring species. In addition, species are the key working parts of natural ecosystems. They are responsible for maintenance of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, regulation of the global climate, generation and maintenance of soils, recycling of nutrients and waste products, and biological control of pest species. Ecosystems surely would not function if all species were lost, although it is unclear just how many species are necessary for an ecosystem to function properly.


The tendency in ecosystems, when undisturbed, to have a great variety of species forming a complex web of interactions. Human population pressure and resource consumption tend to reduce biodiversity dangerously; diverse communities are less subject to catastrophic disruption.


The range of living organisms (such as plant and animal species) in an environment during a specific time period.


the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species in their natural environments, which is the aim of conservationists concerned about the indiscriminate destruction of rainforests and other habitats
References in periodicals archive ?
The aim of the 2015 Biodiversity Economy Indaba will be to bring together multiple and diverse stakeholders in the biodiversity economy, including the hunting, game farm and related activities industries, as well as the bioprospecting, natural products and biotrade industries.
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He will soon decide on new biodiversity offsetting plans to allow developers to build on wildlife habitats providing they attempt to offset the damage elsewhere.
Finally, if you wish to celebrate Biodiversity then why not join me for a litter-pick of one of Barry's most beautiful beaches on (bank holiday) Monday between 3pm and 4pm.
The four-day workshop began at Wyndham Grand Regency-Hotel on Saturday under the auspices of Minister of Environment HE Ahmed bin Amer al Humaidi and in collaboration with International Biodiversity Agreement Secretariat and UNEP office for West Asia.
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The ministerial session of the CBD will culminate in to finalization and release of EoACAyHyderabad Declaration" laying down a road map and clear commitment of participating countries for the protection of biodiversity of marine, water and agriculture.
The high level ministerial session will take decisions over the biodiversity issues including the fund mobilisation of implementing the UN biodiversity strategic plan and the targets to be achieved by 2020.

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