bioelectronics


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bioelectronics

[¦bī·ō‚i‚lek′trän·iks]
(biophysics)
The application of electronic theories and techniques to the problems of biology.
The use of biotechnology in electronic devices such as biosensors, molecular electronics, and neuronal interfaces; more speculatively, the use of proteins in constructing circuits.

Bioelectronics

A discipline in which biotechnology and electronics are joined in at least three areas of research and development: biosensors, molecular electronics, and neuronal interfaces. Some workers in the field include so-called biochips and biocomputers in this area of carbon-based information technology. They suggest that biological molecules might be incorporated into self-structuring bioinformatic systems which display novel information processing and pattern recognition capabilities, but these applications—although technically possible—are speculative.

Of the three disciplines—biosensors, molecular electronics, and neuronal interfaces—the most mature is the burgeoning area of biosensors. The term biosensor is used to describe two sometimes very different classes of analytical devices—those that measure biological analytes and those that exploit biological recognition as part of the sensing mechanism—although it is the latter concept which truly captures the spirit of bioelectronics. Molecular electronics is a term coined to describe the exploitation of biological molecules in the fabrication of electronic materials with novel electronic, optical, or magnetic properties. Finally, and more speculatively, bioelectronics incorporates the development of functional neuronal interfaces which permit contiguity between neural tissue and conventional solid-state and computing technology in order to achieve applications such as aural and visual prostheses, the restoration of movement to the paralyzed, and even expansion of the human faculties of memory and intelligence. The common feature of all of this research activity is the close juxtaposition of biologically active molecules, cells, and tissues with conventional electronic systems for advanced applications in analytical science, electronic materials, device fabrication, and neural prostheses.

electroceutical

(ELECTROnic pharmaCEUTICAL) Bioelectronic devices implanted in the human body. Pacemakers and defibrillators were the first such devices, followed by implants in the spine, ears and eyes. Instead of drugs (pharmaceutical), electroceutical devices stimulate nerves and tissue. See bioinformatics and micro array.


Amazing Potential
In 2014, Stanford University researchers Ada Poon and John Ho invented a wireless chip the size of a grain of rice (top) that attaches to and stimulates nerves to relieve chronic pain and other diseases. "Neurostimulator" chips can be implanted deep in the body and powered externally via "midfield" electromagnetic radiation. The implants can contain their own minuscule rechargeable battery or be batteryless and activated when therapy is needed. (Images courtesy of Poon Lab, Stanford Engineering Department.)


Amazing Potential
In 2014, Stanford University researchers Ada Poon and John Ho invented a wireless chip the size of a grain of rice (top) that attaches to and stimulates nerves to relieve chronic pain and other diseases. "Neurostimulator" chips can be implanted deep in the body and powered externally via "midfield" electromagnetic radiation. The implants can contain their own minuscule rechargeable battery or be batteryless and activated when therapy is needed. (Images courtesy of Poon Lab, Stanford Engineering Department.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Bioelectronic medicine leverages these neural pathways to regulate therapeutic targets and treat disease, nerve-stimulating or nerve-blocking devices, either implanted or held against the skin, have the potential to modulate specific nerve activity, elicit a specific change in organ function and restore health without side effects.1 Many of the processes of the human body are controlled by electrical signals firing between the nervous system and the body organs which may become distorted in many chronic diseases.
The pilot trial for SetPoint's bioelectronic therapy for drug refractory RA began in late March.
Malhotra, "Polyaniline Langmuir-Blodgett film based aptasensor for ochratoxin A detection," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol.
Jang, "Ultrasensitive flexible graphene based field-effect transistor (FET)-type bioelectronic nose," Nano Letters, vol.
Xu, "Simultaneous electrochemical determination of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid at single-walled carbon nanohorn modified glassy carbon electrode," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol.
Munoz, "Pathogen detection: a perspective of traditional methods and biosensors," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol.
Yang, "Replacing antibodies with aptamers in lateral flow immunoassay," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol.
"It could be exquisitely specific and therefore both more efficacious and safer than most medicines used today," Kris Famm, GSK's head of bioelectronics, told Forbes last fall.
GSK's chairman of global vaccines Moncef Slaoui said: "This agreement with Verily to establish Galvani Bioelectronics signals a crucial step forward in GSK's bioelectronics journey, bringing together health and tech to realise a shared vision of miniaturised, precision electrical therapies."
Zhang, "PVDF-Nafion Nanomembranes Coated Microneedles for in Vivo Transcutaneous Implantable Glucose Sensing", Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 74, pp.
Molecular Bioelectronics: The 19 Years of Progress, 2nd Edition
My new go-to is bioelectronics, tiny disease-modifying devices that work sort of like a Nest temperature system.