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in philosophy, a branch of ethicsethics,
in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society
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 concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. These issues include the morality of abortionabortion,
expulsion of the products of conception before the embryo or fetus is viable. Any interruption of human pregnancy prior to the 28th week is known as abortion. The term spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage, is used to signify delivery of a nonviable embryo or fetus due
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, euthanasiaeuthanasia
, either painlessly putting to death or failing to prevent death from natural causes in cases of terminal illness or irreversible coma. The term comes from the Greek expression for "good death.
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, in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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, and organ transplants (see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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). In the 1970s bioethics emerged as a discipline with its own experts, often professional philosophers, who developed university courses on the subject. Many hospitals now employ experts on bioethics to advise on such issues as how to treat terminally ill patients and to allocate limited resources. Advances in health care, the development of genetic testinggenetic testing,
medical screening for genetic disorders, by examining either a person's DNA directly or a person's biochemistry or chromosomes for indirect evidence. Testing may be done to identify a genetic disorder a person has, whether the disorder is already evident or not,
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 and screening, and the new research in genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, including gene therapygene therapy,
the use of genes and the techniques of genetic engineering in the treatment of a genetic disorder or chronic disease. There are many techniques of gene therapy, all of them still in experimental stages.
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, have also given rise to questions in bioethics.


See W. T. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics (4 vol., 1978); H. T. Engelhardt, The Foundations of Bioethics (1986); R. Macklin, Mortal Choices: Bioethics in Today's World (1987).


A discipline concerned with the application of ethics to biological problems, especially in the field of medicine.
References in periodicals archive ?
The choice of 2012 was intended to allow a more distanced analysis of the data, in addition to the fact that several important publications on the nephrological and bioethical issues in access to RRT in the BRICS countries were published around that time.
Consequently, attention is given to Article 9 of the UDBHR; thereafter, the ethical guidelines of the DoH are discussed briefly to determine whether they are broadly in accordance with global bioethical guidelines.
In some situations reported in the interviews, it was found that the methodological approach of interdisciplinary debate enabled the academic one bioethical reflection space, enabling them to gain a better understanding of the complexity of the issues discussed, realizing that such questions involve different aspects and divide opinions.
My own bioethical contributions in the journal have covered a range of fields from abortion to the reproductive technologies, from nonexistence to contemporary medical scandals, and from genetic issues to biomedical manipulation and how we can cope with our disagreements over bioethical dilemmas.
Today, it is generally accepted that even patients whose physical and cognitive abilities are intact, are uniquely vulnerable in the bioethical environment because of the bigger expertise and social authority of the treating doctor.
9) Staff members need to consider the bioethical standards of autonomy, freedom, objectivity, self-assertion, beneficence and fidelity, so the patient's individuality is respected.
2%) are regarded as the most important bioethical issues, probably for specific reasons of the glamour attached to the technology, moral connotations and the hype created by media respectively.
They reject the idea that there is a necessary and sufficient 'core' to bioethics, identifying four axis of bioethical difference: disciplinary; functional diversity; sub-fields and specialization; and moral pluralism.
Also, it would be appropriate for the Iranian Ministry of Health to appoint a special task force to make sure that all the fertility and infertility centers in Iran abide by the bioethical guidelines that are specifically designed and written to safeguard the rights of patients and individuals involved in the use of ART.
So too does narrative ethics, despite its goal of centering patient stories in bioethical thinking.
The previous judgement presupposed the existence of a "right to have a child" and had ignored national sovereignty in bioethical issues.
President Barack Obama's Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues discussed the reports key findings in Washington and they will issue a final report in December.