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in philosophy, a branch of ethicsethics,
in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society
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 concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. These issues include the morality of abortionabortion,
expulsion of the products of conception before the embryo or fetus is viable. Any interruption of human pregnancy prior to the 28th week is known as abortion. The term spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage, is used to signify delivery of a nonviable embryo or fetus due
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, euthanasiaeuthanasia
, either painlessly putting to death or failing to prevent death from natural causes in cases of terminal illness or irreversible coma. The term comes from the Greek expression for "good death.
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, in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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, and organ transplants (see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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). In the 1970s bioethics emerged as a discipline with its own experts, often professional philosophers, who developed university courses on the subject. Many hospitals now employ experts on bioethics to advise on such issues as how to treat terminally ill patients and to allocate limited resources. Advances in health care, the development of genetic testinggenetic testing,
medical screening for genetic disorders, by examining either a person's DNA directly or a person's biochemistry or chromosomes for indirect evidence. Testing may be done to identify a genetic disorder a person has, whether the disorder is already evident or not,
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 and screening, and the new research in genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, including gene therapygene therapy,
the use of genes and the techniques of genetic engineering in the treatment of a genetic disorder or chronic disease. There are many techniques of gene therapy, all of them still in experimental stages.
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, have also given rise to questions in bioethics.


See W. T. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics (4 vol., 1978); H. T. Engelhardt, The Foundations of Bioethics (1986); R. Macklin, Mortal Choices: Bioethics in Today's World (1987).

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A discipline concerned with the application of ethics to biological problems, especially in the field of medicine.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The conference also provides an excellent venue for professional networking with others interested in the field of bioethics. Continuing medical education credit is available.
We work in different environment and the pioneers of Bioethics in USA were not aware of the problems which are faced in these countries.
He praised SIUT as an example for the entire region, adding that he was impressed that along with being a leader in organ transplantation, SIUT was a leader in bioethics as well.
The Center has great deal to offer to WHO and its work in bioethics. WHO has greatly benefited from the Centre's expertise and contributions in different areas, such as ethics in organ transplantation, research ethics, and epidemics - all of which are key priorities of WHO's work plan.
In addition to being a leader in organ transplantation, SIUT is leading in bioethics as well, he said.
With bioethics, doctors can serve in their noble profession even better.
of bioethics should be reexamined and adopted in light of growing
of the regulations of the committee and other topics related to bioethics issues, and the
Experts from WHO and UNESCO are also taking part in the conference which aims to disseminate the concept of bioethics education and the challenges faced in this field.
I could also observe ethics as a part of different courses like Gynaecology in MBBS and Professional Practice in DPT but Islamic bioethics did not appear as a separate entity i.e.
The first chapter, by Cheryl C Macpherson, is devoted to Potter's global bioethics, which is concerned with the dependencies and relationships between humans and other living things, and extends beyond environmental ethics and public health ethics to human health and well-being and other spheres.
KUWAIT, May 17 (KUNA) -- The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KIRS) and Kuwait National Commission for UNESCO (KNC UNESCO) inaugurated Sunday a workshop on bioethics. "The workshop aims to promote the bioethics teaching in the Arab countries and encourage states to have their own national commissions for bioethics," Kuwait National Commission for UNESCO Secretary-General Abdullatif Al-Baijan said in the inaugural speech.