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in philosophy, a branch of ethicsethics,
in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society
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 concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. These issues include the morality of abortionabortion,
expulsion of the products of conception before the embryo or fetus is viable. Any interruption of human pregnancy prior to the 28th week is known as abortion. The term spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage, is used to signify delivery of a nonviable embryo or fetus due
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, euthanasiaeuthanasia
, either painlessly putting to death or failing to prevent death from natural causes in cases of terminal illness or irreversible coma. The term comes from the Greek expression for "good death.
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, in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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, and organ transplants (see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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). In the 1970s bioethics emerged as a discipline with its own experts, often professional philosophers, who developed university courses on the subject. Many hospitals now employ experts on bioethics to advise on such issues as how to treat terminally ill patients and to allocate limited resources. Advances in health care, the development of genetic testinggenetic testing,
medical screening for genetic disorders, by examining either a person's DNA directly or a person's biochemistry or chromosomes for indirect evidence. Testing may be done to identify a genetic disorder a person has, whether the disorder is already evident or not,
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 and screening, and the new research in genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, including gene therapygene therapy,
the use of genes and the techniques of genetic engineering in the treatment of a genetic disorder or chronic disease. There are many techniques of gene therapy, all of them still in experimental stages.
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, have also given rise to questions in bioethics.


See W. T. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics (4 vol., 1978); H. T. Engelhardt, The Foundations of Bioethics (1986); R. Macklin, Mortal Choices: Bioethics in Today's World (1987).


A discipline concerned with the application of ethics to biological problems, especially in the field of medicine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Organizers of the Trinity Bioethics Lectureship say the discussion Hook will lead extends beyond bringing a Christian perspective to the many bioethical issues in health care that call for careful examination.
He studied for two years at the UP College of Medicine before entering the priesthood, and eventually obtained a doctorate in sacred theology, taught bioethics, and sat in bioethics committees.
definition of bioethics to include public health activities, social
possibility of establishing a bioethics unit in the College of Medicine for which a team was
He said SIUT was the only medical institution in the country which has bioethics centre in its fold for discussing ethical challenges to the world of medical sciences.
Therefore, it is really important that Islamic Studies may be revised to Islamic Bioethics and should have updated contents in parallel with the modern era, so that this objective could successfully be accomplished.
The health impacts and ethical implications of climate change are mostly neglected in bioethics despite bioethics responsibility to examine and inform health-related public and policy dialogue.
1 The contemporary medical ethics and bioethics today, began after the 2nd world war as a result of contemptible issues in medical research and medical interventions.
In 1992 UCT formally approved what became known as the Bioethics Centre, the first such centre in South Africa.
As bioethics slips into an uncomfortable middle age there appears to be an increasing sense that it is in need of firmer foundations and a clearer appreciation of its own purpose.
Private Bodies, Public Texts: Race, Gender, and a Cultural Bioethics
In this second installment of essays selected during our fortieth anniversary contest last year, authors look at how bioethics is done, paying particular attention to respect for other points of view, rethinking how issues are framed, and developing a common moral framework that can reach across disciplines.