Immunotherapy

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Immunotherapy

The treatment of cancer by improving the ability of a tumor-bearing individual (the host) to reject the tumor immunologically. There are molecules on the surface of tumor cells, and perhaps in their interior, that are recognized as different from normal structures by the immune system and thus generate an immune response. The two components of the immune response are cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity, which must work in concert to overcome tumor cells. One type of thymus-derived lymphocyte (also called a cytotoxic T cell) can destroy tumor cells directly, while another recruits other white blood cells, the macrophages, that do the killing. Natural killer cells and perhaps other white blood cells may also participate. However, elements that normally regulate immunity, such as suppressor T cells, are stimulated excessively by the tumor, which leads to an immune response that is deficient and unable to reject the growing tumor. Thus the strategy of immunotherapy is to stimulate within or transfer to the tumor-bearing individual the appropriate antitumor elements while avoiding further stimulation of suppressor elements. See Cellular immunology, Immunologic cytotoxicity, Immunosuppression

There are four broad categories of immunotherapy: active, adoptive, restorative, and passive. Active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the host's intrinsic immune response to the tumor, either nonspecifically or specifically. Nonspecific active immunotherapy utilizes materials that have no apparent antigenic relationship to the tumor, but have modulatory effects on the immune system, stimulating macrophages, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Specific active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate specific antitumor responses with tumor-associated antigens as the immunizing materials. Adoptive immunotherapy involves the transfer of immunologically competent white blood cells or their precursors into the host. Bone marrow transplantation, while performed principally for the replacement of hematopoietic stem cells, can also be viewed as adoptive immunotherapy. Restorative immunotherapy comprises the direct and indirect restoration of deficient immunological function through any means other than the direct transfer of cells. Passive immunotherapy means the transfer of antibodies to tumor-bearing recipients. This approach has been made feasible by the development of hybridoma technology, which now permits the production of large quantities of monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigenic determinant on tumor cells. See Genetic engineering, Immunology, Monoclonal antibodies

Immunotherapy

 

a branch of practical immunology concerned with the treatment of infectious diseases through the use of immunological preparations, such as vaccines, immune sera, and gamma globulins.

Sera and gamma globulins are used for acute types of disease, such as diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and cerebrospinal meningitis. Vaccines are injected for protracted, sluggish, and chronic forms of infection, such as dysentery, brucellosis, and tularemia. Immunotherapy is combined with antibiotics and chemotherapy.

In veterinary medicine, infectious diseases are treated by injecting affected animals with therapeutic sera and bacteriophages. When injected with therapeutic serum or the gamma globulin obtained from it the animal receives, in ready form, protective substances (antibodies) against the causative agent of the disease or its toxin.

immunotherapy

[¦im·yə·nō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Therapy utilizing immunosuppressives.
References in periodicals archive ?
The onset of psoriasis during the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases with infliximab: should biological therapy be suspended?
In addition to these biologics, the oral chemokine receptor vercirnon (GlaxoSmithKline/ChemoCentryx's Traficet-EN), which is expected to launch in 2016, could be an alternative to biological therapy and secure a position earlier in the treatment algorithm; however in the absence of robust data, this agent is expected to experience only moderate uptake.
Following a treatment review with my doctor, I was prescribed a biological therapy and my skin started to clear and my confidence came back.
4 October 2010 - US biopharmaceutical company VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc announced on Monday at the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer (ISBTC) the successful completion of a Phase I study for VTX-2337, its Toll-Like Receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist for oncology.
The role of Roche's Avastin (bevacizumab) in GBM is still debated, and the results of ongoing pivotal studies are eagerly anticipated with the hope that they will enlighten us regarding this biological therapy.
HERCEPTIN is the first targeted biological therapy to show a survival benefit in advanced stomach cancer.
Cimzia will primarily be considered after Remicade and/or Humira, and Tysabri will continue to be relegated to last-line biological therapy through 2020.
Treatment of physician's choice was defined as any single agent chemotherapy, hormonal treatment or biological therapy approved for the treatment of cancer; or palliative treatment or radiotherapy administered according to local practice.
Emerging technologies include photodynamic therapy, gene therapy, biological therapy (immunotherapy) and angiogenesis inhibitors.
In addition, the COHERTA study team also believes that some patients might then benefit from biological therapy if their cancer type is characterized as HER2-positive.
Contract award: biological therapy iii - injection therapy.
New Data on MKC1106-MT and MKC1106-PP Presented at the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer 2009 Annual Meeting

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