bioprinting


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bioprinting

Using a specialized 3D printer to create human tissue. Instead of depositing liquid plastic or metal powder to build objects, the bioprinter deposits living cells layer by layer. Although decades away, the goal is to replace donor organs and their ongoing rejection issue with organs 3D printed from a patient's own cells. In the meantime, being able to routinely print tissue that can replace damaged areas in an organ is expected to materialize on a large scale. See tissue engineering.

Early Results
In 2002, Professor Makoto Nakamura of the University of Toyama, Japan determined that human cells were the same size as the ink droplets in an inkjet printer. In 2008, using a modified inkjet printer, Nakamura created a double-walled tube similar to a human blood vessel. In 2013 Cornell University printed ear cartilage that, after implantation, is expected to grow like normal tissue. Also in 2013, San Diego, CA-based Oragnovo printed tiny human liver samples. When subjected to diseases and drugs, the samples behave more like real organs than the commonly used 2D cultures and can determine a drug's efficacy before engaging in clinical trials. See organ on a chip and 3D printing.
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References in periodicals archive ?
This is why the director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) became a pioneer in growing and regenerating tissues and organs via 3D bioprinting. WFIRM is a leader in translating scientific discovery into clinical therapies.
The laser-assisted bioprinting technology developed by Poietis to produce biological tissue can position cells in 3D with extremely high cellular resolution (on the order of 10 microns) and cellular viability (more than 95%), according to L'Oreal.
Previously, our group suggested several hierarchical scaffolds which were fabricated using a composite forming system that combined 3D bioprinting and an electrospinning process to override the shortcomings of each method [25].
Researchers also are active in bioprinting, a process in which cells are layered to create tissue.
The main advantage of this technology is that many biomaterials can be prepared by 3D bioprinting to produce complex structures with precise control of pore size or the spatial distribution of pores and microarchitect by the computer-aided design (CAD) [8-11].
(OTCBB: RBCC) has planned a major push into the skyrocketing 3D bioprinting market in 2014.
He finally pointed towards the fourth level of complexity, which includes organs like heart, liver and kidneys, which are the ultimate goal for bioprinting pioneers.
Organovo and Methuselah Foundation, a Springfield, Va., public charity incentivizing innovation in regenerative medicine, recently announced that they will fund research at major research organizations using Organovo's proprietary NovoGen Bioprinting technology.
Researchers are still a long way from printing a functioning kidney, but labs are exploring "bioprinting," in which the printer lays down cells that can, for example, filter blood like a kidney.
A new take on bioprinting is called dynamic optical projection stereolithography and is markedly different from current 3-D bioprinting systems.
Eye-opening developments in "bioprinting" are already taking place.
The process, called bioprinting, could use the patient's own cells as a catalyst and thereby not only help alleviate demands for new organ donations, but also negate the resistance of many patients' bodies to transplanted organs.