Among bioregionalists, a geographical area that has distinctive natural characteristics is considered a bioregion.
Bioregionalists expect to see great environmental and social progress occur in and around big cities.
To the bioregionalists, the concept has been "hijacked" to serve the aspirations of transnational interests in competing in the global economy.
Bioregionalist Activists and the Sustainability Paradigm.
The desire by Gottlieb and the bioregionalists
to see a spatial coincidence between ecological territories and cultural territories is one the reader may sympathize with but it remains unconvincingly supported.
An important part of understanding your surroundings, according to the bioregionalists
, is to get to know the watershed you live in, to be able to trace a drop of rain from the spot where it falls on a hillside to the point at which it enters the sea.
As for how to get there, some social ecologists, such as Brian Tokar, say the creation of working alternatives, specifically bioregionalism, combined with direct confrontation with capitalist institutions (for example, the April 23, 1990 demonstration on Wall Street just after Earth Day), is the way.(7) Bioregionalists
, not all of whom would consider themselves social ecologists, advocate dropping out of the larger market economy and establishing regional self-sufficiency and cooperative economic relationships among federated communities.
Storms and her colleagues said they are influenced profoundly by the views of bioregionalists
, who stress awareness of one's particular place on the Earth in forming ecological consciousness and in making decisions.
and anarchists also tend to forget that cities have their own "organic" evolutionary dynamics; that city economies cannot be plunked down in the middle of anywhere, like the artificial administrative capitals created by the European monarchies of which he is so critical.
All the elements of such an analysis, it seems to me, are in existence, scattered and still needing refinement, perhaps, but there: in Mumford and E.E Schumacher (Small Is Beautiful) and Wendell Berry (The Unsettling of America) and Jerry Mander (In the Absence of the Sacred) and the Chellis Glendinning manifesto (Utne Reader, March/April 1990); in the writing of the Earth First!ers and the bioregionalists
and deep ecologists; in the lessons and models of the Amish and the Iroquois; in the wisdom of tribal elders and the legacy of tribal experience everywhere; in the work of the long line of dissenters-from-progress and naysayers-to-technology.
It is what bioregionalists
call "reinhabitation," the act of dwelling in a place in accordance with its natural attributes, Residents are making their stand there, taking up poet Gary Snyder's challenge that "the most radical act may be to live in one place for the rest of our lives." Their commitment to the place is likely to produce lasting effects and avoid the "interchangeable parts" problem that bedeveis restoration.
This motley collection includes Foreman and his band of monkey-wrenchers; grass-roots activists on issues such as hazardous waste and garbage incineration; bioregionalists
; and elements of some of the big national groups.