biosynthesis


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Related to biosynthesis: Purine biosynthesis

biosynthesis

the formation of complex compounds from simple substances by living organisms

Biosynthesis

The synthesis of more complex molecules from simpler ones in cells by a series of reactions mediated by enzymes. The overall economy and survival of the cell is governed by the interplay between the energy gained from the breakdown of compounds and that supplied to biosynthetic reaction pathways for the synthesis of compounds having a functional role, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and enzymes. Biosynthetic pathways give rise to two distinct classes of metabolite, primary and secondary. Primary metabolites (DNA, RNA, fatty acids, α-amino acids, chlorophyll in green plants, and so forth) are essential to the metabolic functioning of the cells. Secondary metabolites (antibiotics, alkaloids, pheromones, and so forth) aid the functioning and survival of the whole organism more generally. Unlike primary metabolites, secondary metabolites are often unique to individual organisms or classes of organisms. See Enzyme, Metabolism

The selective pressures that drive evolution have ensured a diverse array of secondary metabolite structures. Secondary metabolites can be grouped to some extent by virtue of their origin from key biosynthetic pathways. It is often in the latter stages of these pathways that the structural diversity is introduced. All terpenes, for example, originate from the C5 (five-carbon) intermediate isopentenyl pyrophosphate via mevalonic acid. The mammalian steroids, such as cholesterol, derive from the C30 steroid lanosterol, which is constructed from six C5 units. Alternatively, C10 terpenes (for example, menthol from peppermint leaves) and C15 terpenes (for example, juvenile hormone III from the silk worm) are derived after the condensation of two and three C5 units, respectively, and then with further enzymatic customization in each case. See Cholesterol, Organic evolution, Steroid

Biosynthesis

 

the formation of organic substances from simpler compounds, occurring within living organisms or outside them under the action of biocatalysts—enzymes. Biosynthesis is part of the metabolic process of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Compounds rich in energy serve as the immediate source of energy for biosynthesis, but ultimately (for all organisms except bacteria, which themselves accomplish biosynthesis), that source is the energy of solar radiation accumulated by green plants. Every unicellular organism, as well as every cell of a multicellular organism, synthesizes the substances that constitute it. The type of biosynthesis accomplished in the cell is determined by the hereditary information “coded” in its genetic apparatus. Biosynthesis accomplished outside organisms is used widely as a method (sometimes the only possible one) for commercially obtaining biologically important substances—vitamins, certain hormones, antibiotics, amino acids, proteins, and other compounds.

S. E. SEVERIN

biosynthesis

[‚bī·ō′sin·thə·səs]
(biochemistry)
Production, by synthesis or degradation, of a chemical compound by a living organism.
References in periodicals archive ?
InMed Pharmaceuticals is a biopharmaceutical company developing a proprietary biosynthesis manufacturing technology for the production of pharmaceutical-grade cannabinoids, as well as a pipeline of medications that target diseases with high unmet medical needs.
The changes in free carnitine during exercise and recovery reflect uptake and biosynthesis of this cofactor, respectively.
Identification of Phenolic Compounds Biosynthesis Genes in Sophorae Radix.
These metabolic pathway genes were enriched in a diverse metabolic pathway, such as purine metabolism, biosynthesis of antibiotics, pyrimidine metabolism, and glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis (P value < 10E--03).
The BSPG entities include Hong Kong-based Biosynthesis Pharma Group Ltd.
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms, enzymes, and plant extracts has emerged as a clean, cost-effective and efficient alternative to chemical methods.
L-tryptophan (L-TRP), the physiological precursor of auxins is directly involved in microbial biosynthesis of auxins.
(2012, 2013) found that the inhibition of Pro-Ca on enzyme activities of 2-ODDs flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene (F3H), flavonol synthase gene (FLS) and anthocyanidin synthase gene (ANS) in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in the skin of apples might lead to a decrease in anthocyanin content.
Because most of transcriptome studies in medicinal plants focus on the biosynthesis of active compounds and the research about this part is so much, this part is summarized as chemical composition.
These compounds were investigated for their ability to attenuate the biosynthesis of LTs, their specificity to the 5-LO enzyme, and their potency as inhibitors in a complex environment such as freshly isolated human blood.
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles via biological entities has the potential to deliver a clean and ecofriendly approach.
Biosynthesis of Ag-nanoparticles from three algae species(Westiellopsis sp., Chroococcus minor and Oscillatoria sancta)against four types of bacteria isolated form Baghdad hospitals investigated in this study.