The land ethic, consequently, represents a further inclusion along these lines: the addition of the biotic community
. Callicott cites the following quotation from Leopold as proof that Leopold thought like this: 'The land ethic simply enlarges the boundary of the community to include soil, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land.' (29)
He viewed the human as deeply enmeshed not only in the biotic community
, but also within the cosmic community: the universe itself.
Altered biotic community
composition and habitat conditions of a coastal bay associated with progressive eutrophication signal increasing ecosystem disturbance and impairment that must be tracked in order to implement effective remedial actions and circumvent the decline in human use of estuarine resources and amenities.
Biome: Sonoran Desert; Biotic community
: California steppe.
In Sand County Almanac he wrote, "A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community
. It is wrong when it tends otherwise." We need a "park ethic" that can articulate our ideal relationship with national parks in the same way that the land ethic can serve as a guide for our behavior toward the biological world.
4) Do several listed members of a shared biotic community
rely on protection and/or restoration of their ecosystem to reach recovery?
This index was developed to assess a stream's biological integrity by examining the structure and health of the biotic community
. Biotic communities, such as fish, used in this study hypothetically integrate the effects of all classes of factors influencing aquatic faunal communities, such as water quality, energy source, habitat quality, flow regime, and biotic interactions; therefore, they are good indicators of watershed condition (NC DEHNR 1997a; Karr 1981).
The essence of this is that an act is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community
. Finally, at the level of the Earth, Gaian ethics are emerging, which require that the global patterns and mechanisms of the biosphere must not be violated or disturbed (Fox, 1990).
He reviles radical Earth First!-types because they're perilously close to "eco-fascism," and "ecotopia cannot be created by coercive means." His approach, which he terms "libertarian ecology," recognizes "the claims of the individual as well as those of the social and biotic community
The stream beds and adjacent riparian areas in these sanctuaries have been so overgrazed by cattle that Norton says "a whole biotic community
Aldo Leopold, one of the great naturalists said, "Things are wrong, morally wrong, whenever our biotic community
is degraded." Ecological restoration can be a powerful mechanism to reverse global ecological degradation.