bipolar disorder

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bipolar disorder,


manic-depressive disorder



severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
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 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.


Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.


Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
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 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
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 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.


See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
References in periodicals archive ?
Major finding: Compared with bipolar II disorder patients whose hypomania lasts at least 4 days, patients with episodes of shorter duration scored 14% lower on the Mood Swings Questionnaire and 8% lower on the Mood Disorders Questionnaire, significant but slight differences.
The strength of evidence for monotherapy treatments for acute bipolar II depression, and for maintenance of BD II are summarised in Tables 4 and 5, respectively.
News first emerged in 2011 that Zeta Jones suffered from bipolar II disorder.
In this broad overview for students and professionals in psychiatry, medicine, and the helping professions, international contributors explain the features of Bipolar II and give details on clinical management.
Bipolar II is similar to bipolar I, which involves moods swinging between high and low, from depression to a form of elation featuring manic, impulsive and restless behaviour.
Summary: Catherine Zeta-Jones checked herself into rehab to be treated for bipolar II disorder, after helping her husband battle cancer.
In one of the more elaborate models, Akiskal and Pinto (1999) described a bipolar spectrum that incorporates seven subtypes: bipolar I (classic mania); bipolar I 1/2 (depression with persistent hypomania); bipolar II (depression interspersed with hypomania); bipolar II 1/2 (depression with briefer periods of hypomania); bipolar III (antidepressant-induced hypomania); bipolar III 1/2 (bipolarity associated with substance misuse); and bipolar IV (depression superimposed on a hyperthymic temperament).
Bipolar II disorder (hereafter referred to simply as bipolar) can be better understood and addressed by applying appropriate psychological principles.
The authors first introduce the NURSE model of assessment, then describe maternity blues, postpartum psychosis, bipolar II disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder caused by childbirth, and screening methods.
Bipolar I refers to individuals who experience depression alternating with out-of-control or psychotic mania, and Bipolar II refers to those who suffer depression and experience hypomanic episodes without loss of control or psychosis.
Lifetime prevalence rates in various countries for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar spectrum disorder and schizophrenia were identified from population-based epidemiological studies that used similar methods.